Jaunumi

Neftijs uz krāsotas veļas

Neftijs uz krāsotas veļas


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Paneļu krāsošana

A paneļu krāsošana ir glezna, kas izgatavota uz plakanā paneļa, kas izgatavots no koka, vai nu viena gabala, vai vairākiem gabaliem, kas ir savienoti kopā. Līdz 16. gadsimtā audekls kļuva par populārāko atbalsta līdzekli, tas bija parasts atbalsta veids gleznai, kas nav uz sienas (freska) vai velve, un ko izmantoja miniatūrām apgaismotos rokrakstos un gleznām ierāmēšanai.


Saturs

Lai gan no Predynastic perioda Ēģiptē (aptuveni 6000 - 3150 BC) neviens raksts nav saglabājies, zinātnieki uzskata, ka fiziskā ķermeņa un tā saglabāšanas nozīme ir radusies tur. Tas, iespējams, izskaidro, kāpēc tā laika cilvēki neievēroja parasto kremācijas praksi, bet drīzāk apglabāja mirušos. Daži arī uzskata, ka viņi, iespējams, baidījās, ka ķermeņi atkal celsies, ja pēc nāves slikti izturēsies. [3]

Agrīnie ķermeņi tika aprakti vienkāršās, seklās ovālās bedrēs ar dažām apbedīšanas precēm. Dažreiz vienā kapā tika ievietoti vairāki cilvēki un dzīvnieki. Laika gaitā kapi kļuva sarežģītāki. Kādā brīdī ķermeņi tika ievietoti pītā grozā, bet galu galā ķermeņi bija vietas koka vai terakotas zārkos. Jaunākās ēģiptiešu izgatavotās kapenes bija sarkofāgi. Šajos kapos bija apbedīšanas preces, piemēram, juvelierizstrādājumi, pārtika, spēles un asinātas šinas. [4]

Starp Predinastijas periodu un Ptolemaju dinastiju pastāvīgi tika pievērsta uzmanība mūžīgajai dzīvībai un personības eksistences drošībai pēc nāves. Šī ticība pēcnāves dzīvei atspoguļojas kapu mantu apbedīšanā kapenēs. Ēģiptiešu ticība pēcnāves dzīvei kļuva zināma visā senajā pasaulē ar tirdzniecības un kultūras pārneses palīdzību, kas ietekmēja citas civilizācijas un reliģijas. Proti, šī pārliecība kļuva plaši pazīstama Zīda ceļa ceļā. Tika uzskatīts, ka indivīdi tiek uzņemti pēcnāves dzīvē, pamatojoties uz spēju tur kalpot kādam mērķim. Piemēram, tika uzskatīts, ka faraonu var ielaist pēcnāves dzīvē, jo viņš bija Senās Ēģiptes valdnieks, un tas būtu mērķis, kas tulkots viņa pēcnāves dzīvē.

Cilvēku upuri, kas atrodami agrīnajos karaļa kapos, pastiprina ideju kalpot kādam mērķim pēcnāves dzīvē. Tie upuri, iespējams, bija paredzēti, lai kalpotu faraonam viņa pēcnāves dzīvē. Galu galā figūriņas un sienu gleznas sāk aizstāt cilvēku upurus. [5] Dažas no šīm figūriņām, iespējams, tika radītas, lai līdzinātos noteiktiem cilvēkiem, lai pēc dzīves beigām tās varētu sekot faraonam.

Ne tikai zemākās šķiras paļāvās uz faraona labvēlību, bet arī cildenās šķiras. Viņi uzskatīja, ka, kad viņš nomira, faraons kļuva par sava veida dievu, kas dažiem cilvēkiem varēja piešķirt iespēju pēcnāves dzīvei. Šī pārliecība pastāvēja no pirms dinastijas perioda caur Veco valstību.

Lai gan daudzas burvestības no iepriekšējiem tekstiem tika pārnestas, jaunajiem zārka tekstiem tika pievienotas arī jaunas jaunas burvestības, kā arī nelielas izmaiņas, lai padarītu šo jauno bēru tekstu vairāk attiecināmu uz muižniecību. [6] Pirmajā starpposma periodā faraona nozīme tomēr samazinājās. Bēru teksti, kas agrāk bija paredzēti tikai karaliskai lietošanai, kļuva plašāk pieejami. Faraons vairs nebija dievu ķēniņš tādā nozīmē, ka tikai viņš bija atļauts nākamajā dzīvē, ņemot vērā viņa statusu šeit, tagad viņš bija tikai iedzīvotāju valdnieks, kurš pēc viņa nāves tiks nolaists uz mirstīgo plakni . [7]

Aizvēsture, agrāko apbedījumu rediģēšana

Pirmās bēres Ēģiptē ir zināmas no Omari un Maadi ciematiem ziemeļos, netālu no mūsdienu Kairas. Šo ciematu iedzīvotāji apglabāja savus mirušos vienkāršā, apaļā kapā ar podu. Ķermenis netika ne apstrādāts, ne sakārtots noteiktā veidā, kas mainīsies vēlāk vēsturiskajā periodā. Bez rakstiskiem pierādījumiem ir maz informācijas, kas sniegtu informāciju par mūsdienu uzskatiem par pēcnāves dzīvi, izņemot regulāru viena katla iekļaušanu kapā. Ņemot vērā vēlākās paražas, katls, iespējams, bija paredzēts, lai turētu ēdienu mirušajam. [8]

Predynastiskais periods, muitas attīstība Rediģēt

Bēru paražas tika izstrādātas Predynastic periodā no aizvēsturiskā perioda. Sākumā ļaudis ar vienu podu izraka apaļos kapus Bādārijas periodā (4400–3800 BC), turpinot Omari un Maadi kultūru tradīcijas. Līdz Predynastic perioda beigām arvien vairāk priekšmetu tika noglabāti ķermenī taisnstūra kapos, un arvien vairāk pierādījumu ir rituāliem, ko praktizēja ēģiptieši Naqada II periodā (3650–3300 BC). Šajā brīdī ķermeņi regulāri tika novietoti izliektā vai augļa stāvoklī ar seju pret austrumiem uzlecošo sauli vai rietumiem (kas šajā vēsturiskajā periodā bija mirušo zeme). Mākslinieki krāsoja burkas ar bēru gājieniem un varbūt rituālām dejām. Parādījās arī figūras par kailām krūtīm sievietēm ar putnu sejām un kājām, kas paslēptas zem svārkiem. Daži kapi bija daudz bagātāki par precēm nekā citi, parādot sociālās noslāņošanās sākumu. Dzimumu atšķirības apbedījumos parādījās, ieročus iekļaujot vīriešu kapos un kosmētikas paletes sieviešu kapos. [9]

Līdz 3600. gadam pirms mūsu ēras ēģiptieši bija sākuši mumificēt mirušos, iesaiņojot tos lina pārsējos ar balzamēšanas eļļām (skujkoku sveķiem un aromātiskiem augu ekstraktiem). [10] [11]

Agrīnais dinastijas periods, kapenes un zārki Rediģēt

Līdz pirmajai dinastijai daži ēģiptieši bija pietiekami turīgi, lai uzceltu kapus virs saviem apbedījumiem, nevis ievietotu savus ķermeņus vienkāršās bedres kapos, kas izraktas smiltīs. Taisnstūrveida dubļu ķieģeļu kaps ar pazemes apbedījumu kameru, ko sauc par mastabu, attīstījās šajā periodā. Šīm kapenēm bija nišas sienas, celtniecības stils, ko sauca par pils-fasādes motīvu, jo sienas atdarināja tās, kas ieskauj karaļa pili. Tā kā vienkāršiem cilvēkiem, kā arī karaļiem bija šādas kapenes, arhitektūra liecina, ka nāves gadījumā daži turīgi cilvēki patiešām sasniedza paaugstinātu statusu. Vēlāk vēsturiskajā periodā ir skaidrs, ka mirušais bija saistīts ar mirušo dievu Ozīrisu.

Kapu preces tika paplašinātas, iekļaujot mēbeles, rotaslietas un spēles, kā arī ieročus, kosmētikas paletes un pārtikas krājumus dekorētās burkās, kas zināmas agrāk, Predynastic periodā. Tomēr tagad bagātākajās kapenēs tūkstošiem bija kapu mantas. Tikai jaunizgudrotie zārki ķermenim tika izgatavoti speciāli kapam. Ir arī daži nepārliecinoši pierādījumi par mumifikāciju. Citi objekti kapos, kas tika izmantoti ikdienas dzīvē, liecina, ka ēģiptieši jau pirmajā dinastijā paredzēja nepieciešamību nākamajā dzīvē. Turpmāku nepārtrauktību no šīs dzīves uz nākamo var atrast kapu pozicionēšanā: tās personas, kuras kalpoja karalim savas dzīves laikā, izvēlējās apbedījumus savam kungam. Stela izmantošana kapa priekšā sākās Pirmajā dinastijā, norādot uz vēlmi individualizēt kapu ar mirušā vārdu. [12]

Vecā valstība, piramīdas un mumifikācija Rediģēt

Vecajā Karalistē karaļi vispirms savām augstākajām amatpersonām uzcēla piramīdas savām kapenēm, ko ieskauj akmens mastabas kapenes. Fakts, ka lielākā daļa augstāko amatpersonu bija arī karaliskie radinieki, liecina par citu motivāciju šādai izvietošanai: šie kompleksi bija arī ģimenes kapi.

Elites vidū ķermeņi tika mumificēti, ietīti lina pārsējos, dažreiz pārklāti ar lietu apmetumu un ievietoti akmens sarkofāgos vai vienkāršos koka zārkos. Vecās valstības beigās parādījās arī mūmiju maskas kartona veidā (apmetumā samērcēta veļa, modelēta un krāsota). Canopic burkas tagad turēja savus iekšējos orgānus. Zelta, fajansa un karneļa amuleti vispirms parādījās dažādās formās, lai aizsargātu dažādas ķermeņa daļas. Ir arī pirmās liecības par uzrakstiem elites zārku iekšpusē Vecās valstības laikā. Bieži vien ikdienas priekšmetu reljefi tika iegravēti pie sienām, papildinot kapu priekšmetus, kas padarīja tos pieejamus, attēlojot tos.

Jaunās viltus durvis bija nefunkcionējoša durvju akmens skulptūra, kas tika atrasta vai nu kapelas iekšpusē, vai mastabas ārpusē, un tā kalpoja par upuri un lūgšanu lasīšanu par mirušo. Mirušā statujas tagad tika iekļautas kapos un izmantotas rituāliem. Dažu privātu cilvēku apbedīšanas kameras papildus kapelu dekorēšanai saņēma arī pirmos rotājumus. Vecās valstības beigās apbedīšanas kameras rotājumi attēloja ziedojumus, bet ne cilvēkus. [13]

Pirmais starpposma periods, reģionālo variāciju rediģēšana

Pirmā starpposma politiskā situācija ar daudziem varas centriem atspoguļojas daudzajos vietējos mākslas un apbedīšanas stilos šajā laikā. Daudzie reģionālie zārku dekorēšanas stili ļauj viegli atšķirt to izcelsmi. Piemēram, dažiem zārkiem ir vienas rindas uzraksti, un daudzi stili ietver attēlojumu Wadjet acis (cilvēka acs ar piekūna atzīmēm). Zārku dekorēšanai izmantotajos hieroglifos ir arī reģionālas atšķirības.

Reizēm vīriešu kapos bija instrumenti un ieroči, savukārt dažām sievietēm bija rotaslietas un kosmētikas priekšmeti, piemēram, spoguļi. Slīpakmeņi dažkārt tika iekļauti sieviešu kapenēs, iespējams, uzskatāmi par pārtikas pagatavošanas instrumentu nākamajā pasaulē, tāpat kā vīriešu kapu ieroči nozīmē vīriešu uzdevumu piedalīties cīņā. [14]

Vidējā karaļvalsts, jaunā kapa saturs Rediģēt

Apbedīšanas paražas Vidējā Karalistē atspoguļo dažas šī perioda politiskās tendences. Vienpadsmitās dinastijas laikā kapenes tika izgrieztas Tēbu kalnos, kas ieskauj ķēniņa kapu, vai vietējās kapsētās Augšējā un Vidējā Ēģiptē. Thebes bija vienpadsmitās dinastijas ķēniņu dzimtā pilsēta, un viņi labprātāk tika apglabāti tur. Bet Divpadsmitajā dinastijā augstās amatpersonas kalpoja jaunas ģimenes ķēniņiem, kuri tagad valdīja no ziemeļiem Lishtā, un šie karaļi un viņu augstās amatpersonas deva priekšroku apbedīšanai mastabā netālu no viņu saimniekiem piederošajām piramīdām. Turklāt atšķirība topogrāfijā starp Tēbu un Līstu noveda pie kapa veida atšķirībām: ziemeļos muižnieki uzcēla mastabas kapenes uz līdzeniem tuksneša līdzenumiem, bet dienvidos vietējie cienījamie cilvēki turpināja rakt kapus kalnā.

Tiem, kuru rangs bija zemāks par karaliskajiem galminiekiem vienpadsmitās dinastijas laikā, kapenes bija vienkāršākas. Zārki varētu būt vienkāršas koka kastes ar ķermeni, kas vai nu mumificēts, ietīts linā, vai vienkārši iesaiņots bez mumifikācijas, un pievienota kartona mūmijas maska, kas turpinājās līdz pat grieķu-romiešu periodam. Dažas kapenes ietvēra meža apavus un vienkāršu statuju pie ķermeņa. Vienā apbedījumā bija tikai divpadsmit maizes klaipi, liellopa kāja un alus burka pārtikas piedāvājumam. Juvelierizstrādājumus varēja iekļaut, bet tikai reti tika atrasti ļoti vērtīgi priekšmeti ne-elites kapos. Dažos apbedījumos joprojām tika iekļauti koka modeļi, kas bija populāri pirmajā starpposma periodā. Šī perioda kapenēs ir atrasti laivu koka modeļi, pārtikas ražošanas ainas, amatnieki un darbnīcas, kā arī tādas profesijas kā rakstu mācītāji vai karavīri.

Dažos divpadsmitās dinastijas taisnstūrveida zārkos ir īsi uzraksti un attēlojumi par vissvarīgākajiem mirušā nepieciešamajiem piedāvājumiem. Vīriešiem attēlotie objekti bija ieroči un biroja simboli, kā arī pārtika. Sieviešu zārkos bija attēloti spoguļi, sandales un burkas, kurās bija ēdiens un dzēriens. Daži zārki ietvēra tekstus, kas bija karaliskās piramīdas tekstu vēlākās versijas.

Šķiet, ka cita veida mirušā fajansa modelis kā mūmija paredz izmantot shabti figūriņas (sauktas arī shawabti vai an ushabti) vēlāk divpadsmitajā dinastijā. Šīm agrīnajām figūriņām nav teksta, kas novirzītu figūru uz darbu mirušā vietā, kas atrodama vēlākajās figūriņās. Bagātākajiem cilvēkiem bija akmens figūriņas, kuras, šķiet, paredz shabtis, lai gan daži zinātnieki tos ir uzskatījuši par mūmiju aizstājējiem, nevis kalpu figūrām.

Vēlākajā Divpadsmitajā dinastijā apbedījumos notika būtiskas izmaiņas, kas, iespējams, atspoguļoja karaļa Senvoreta III (1836–1818 pirms mūsu ēras) ieviestos administratīvos grozījumus. Ķermenis tagad tika regulāri novietots uz muguras, nevis uz sāniem, kā tas tika darīts tūkstošiem gadu. Zārka teksti un koka modeļi pazuda no tā laika jaunajām kapenēm, savukārt sirds skarabeji un figūriņas, kas veidotas kā mūmijas, tagad bieži tika iekļautas apbedījumos, kā tas būtu atlikušajā Ēģiptes vēsturē. Zārka dekorēšana tika vienkāršota. Trīspadsmitā dinastija piedzīvoja citas izmaiņas rotājumā. Ziemeļos un dienvidos tika atrasti dažādi motīvi, kas atspoguļo tā laika decentralizēto valdības varu. Ievērojami palielinājās arī apbedījumu skaits vienā kapā, kas bija reta parādība iepriekšējos periodos. Šķiet, ka ģimene paaudžu paaudzēs atkārtoti izmantoja vienu kapu, kad bagātība tika sadalīta taisnīgāk. [15]

Otrais starpposms, ārzemnieku apbedījumi Rediģēt

Zināmie otrā perioda kapi atklāj valstī apbedīto ne-ēģiptiešu klātbūtni. Ziemeļos kapos, kas saistīti ar Hyksos - rietumu semītu tautu, kas valda uz ziemeļiem no ziemeļaustrumu deltas, ietilpst nelielas dubļu ķieģeļu struktūras, kas satur ķermeni, keramikas trauki, duncis vīriešu kapos un bieži vien tuvumā esošs ēzeļa apbedījums. Tiek uzskatīts, ka vienkāršas pannas formas kapi dažādās valsts daļās pieder Nūbijas karavīriem. Šādi kapi atspoguļo ļoti senas paražas, un tiem ir seklas, apaļas bedres, savilktas ķermeņi un minimāls pārtikas piedāvājums podos. Reizēm identificējamu Ēģiptes materiālu iekļaušana no otrā starpposma nodrošina vienīgās zīmes, kas atšķir šos apbedījumus no Predynastic un vēl agrākā perioda. [16]

Jauna valstība, jaunu objektu mērķi Rediģēt

Lielākā daļa Jaunās Karalistes elites kapu bija ieži. Karaļi tika apglabāti daudzistabu, klintīs izcirstās kapenēs Karaļu ielejā un vairs ne piramīdās. Priesteri veica viņu bēru rituālus akmens tempļos, kas uzcelti Nīlas rietumu krastā pretī Tēbām. Pašreizējie pierādījumi liecina, ka astoņpadsmitā dinastija ir pēdējais periods, kurā ēģiptieši, sākot no deviņpadsmitās dinastijas, regulāri iekļāva kapos vairākus objektus no savas ikdienas, kapos bija mazāk priekšmetu no ikdienas dzīves, un tajos bija iekļauti priekšmeti, kas īpaši izgatavoti nākamajai pasaulei. . Tādējādi pāreja no astoņpadsmitās uz deviņpadsmito dinastiju veidoja šķirtni apbedīšanas tradīcijās: astoņpadsmitā dinastija savās paražās vairāk atcerējās tuvāko pagātni, turpretī deviņpadsmitā dinastija paredzēja vēlā perioda paražas.

Astoņpadsmitās dinastijas elites ierindas cilvēki savās kapenēs novietoja mēbeles, kā arī apģērbu un citus priekšmetus - priekšmetus, kurus viņi neapšaubāmi izmantoja dzīves laikā uz zemes. Šajās kapenēs atradās gultas, galvas balsti, krēsli, izkārnījumi, ādas sandales, rotaslietas, mūzikas instrumenti un koka glabāšanas lādes. Lai gan visi uzskaitītie objekti bija paredzēti elitei, daudzi nabadzīgie cilvēki savās kapenēs nelika neko citu kā ieročus un kosmētiku.

Neviena elites kapene neizdzīvo bez Ramzīda perioda. Šajā periodā mākslinieki rotāja elitei piederošās kapenes ar vairāk reliģisku notikumu ainu, nevis ikdienas ainu, kas bija populāra kopš Vecās valstības. Pašas bēres, bēru mielasts kopā ar vairākiem radiniekiem, dievu pielūgšana, pat pazemes personības bija priekšmeti elites kapu rotājumos. Lielākā daļa Ramesīda laika kapenēs atrasto priekšmetu tika izgatavoti pēcnāves dzīvei. Papildus rotaslietām, kuras varēja izmantot arī dzīves laikā, priekšmeti Ramsīdas kapenēs tika ražoti nākamajai pasaulei. [17]

Trešā starpposma rediģēšana

Lai gan Jaunās Karalistes politiskā struktūra sabruka divdesmitās dinastijas beigās, lielākā daļa divdesmit pirmās dinastijas apbedījumu tieši atspoguļo notikumus no iepriekšējā perioda. Šī laika sākumā reljefi atgādināja Ramesīda perioda reljefus. Tikai trešā starpperioda beigās sāka parādīties jaunas pēdējā laika apbedīšanas prakses.

Par šī laika kapiem ir maz zināms. Šķiet, ka pats dekorāciju trūkums kapenēs ir novedis pie daudz sarežģītākas zārku dekorēšanas. Atlikušās šī brīža kapavietas ir diezgan lēti izgatavotas shabtis, pat tad, kad īpašnieks bija karaliene vai princese. [18]

Vēlā perioda, monumentalitātes un atgriešanās pie tradīcijām Rediģēt

Apbedījumos vēlā periodā pirmo reizi varēja izmantot liela mēroga, templim līdzīgas kapenes, kas uzceltas ne-karaliskajai elitei. Bet lielākā daļa kapu šajā periodā atradās šahtās, kas nogrimušas tuksneša grīdā. Papildus smalkajām statujām un reljefiem, kas atspoguļo Vecās Karalistes stilu, lielākā daļa kapu priekšmetu tika īpaši izgatavoti kapam. Zārki turpināja nest reliģiskus tekstus un ainas. Dažas vārpstas tika personalizētas, izmantojot stela ar mirušo lūgšanām un vārdu. Šabtis fajanss visām klasēm ir zināms. Lai gan bieži vien nefunkcionējošas, burkas ar burbuļvannu tika iekļautas. Bieži bija klāt arī mieti un skeptri, kas pārstāvēja mirušā biroju. Varēja atrast koka dievības Osirisa [19] vai saliktas dievības Ptah-Sokar-Osiris figūru [20] [21] kopā ar sirds skarabejiem, gan zelta, gan fajansa paraugiem no djed-kolonnām, Eye of Horus amuletiem. , dievu figūras un mirušā attēli ba. Varēja iekļaut rīkus kapa rituālam, ko sauc par "mutes atvēršanu", kā arī "burvju ķieģeļus" četros kompasa punktos. [22]

Ptolemaja periods, hellenistiskā ietekme Rediģēt

Pēc tam, kad Ēģipte iekaroja Aleksandrs Lielais, valsti pārvaldīja Ptolemaja pēcteči, viens no viņa ģenerāļiem. Maķedonijas grieķu ģimene veicināja kultūru, kas popularizēja gan hellenistisku, gan seno ēģiptiešu dzīvesveidu: kamēr daudzi grieķu valodā runājošie, kas dzīvoja Aleksandrijā, ievēroja kontinentālās Grieķijas paražas, citi pieņēma Ēģiptes paražas, bet ēģiptieši turpināja ievērot savas jau senās paražas.

Ir zināms ļoti maz Ptolemaja kapu. Smalka šī laika tempļa statuja liecina par iespēju veidot kapa skulptūru un piedāvāt galdus. Ēģiptes elites apbedījumos joprojām tika izmantoti akmens sarkofāgi. Arī mirušo grāmatas un amuleti joprojām bija populāri. [23]

Romas periods, romiešu ietekme Rediģēt

Romieši iekaroja Ēģipti 30. gadā pirms mūsu ēras, izbeidzot Ptolemaju dinastijas pēdējā un slavenākā pārstāvja Kleopatras VII valdīšanu. Romas valdīšanas laikā izveidojās elitārs hibrīda apbedīšanas stils, kas ietvēra gan Ēģiptes, gan Romas elementus.

Daži cilvēki tika mumificēti un ietīti lina pārsējos. Mūmijas priekšpuse bieži tika krāsota ar tradicionālo ēģiptiešu simbolu izvēli. Mūmijām var pievienot māmiņu maskas tradicionālā ēģiptiešu vai romiešu stilā. Vēl viena iespēja bija romiešu stila mūmiju portrets, kas uz koka paneļa tika veidots enkaustiski (vaskā suspendēts pigments). Dažreiz mūmijas kājas tika pārklātas. Alternatīva tam bija pilnīgs apvalks ar ēģiptiešu motīviem, bet portrets romiešu stilā. Elites kapenēs varētu būt arī smalkas rotas. [24]

Grieķu vēsturnieki Hērodots (5. gs. Pirms mūsu ēras) un Diodors Siculus (1. gadsimts pirms mūsu ēras) sniedz vispilnīgākos izdzīvojušos pierādījumus tam, kā senie ēģiptieši tuvojās mirušā ķermeņa saglabāšanai. [25] Pirms balzamēšanas vai mirušā ķermeņa saglabāšanas, lai aizkavētu vai novērstu sabrukšanu, sērojošie, īpaši, ja mirušajam bija augsts statuss, pārklāja sejas ar dubļiem un gāja pa pilsētu, sitot krūtis. [25] Ja augsta statusa vīrieša sieva nomira, viņas ķermenis tika balzamēts tikai trīs vai četras dienas, jo tas novērsa līķa ļaunprātīgu izmantošanu. [25] Gadījumā, ja kāds noslīka vai uzbruka, balzamēšana nekavējoties tika veikta uz viņu ķermeņa, svēti un rūpīgi. Šāda veida nāve tika uzskatīta par godājamu, un tikai priesteriem bija atļauts pieskarties ķermenim. [25]

Pēc balzamēšanas sērojošie, iespējams, veica rituālu, kas ietvēra sprieduma pieņemšanu Stundas vigīlijas laikā, brīvprātīgajiem spēlējot Ozīrisa un viņa ienaidnieka brāļa Seta lomu, kā arī dievus Īzisu, Neftiju, Horu, Anubisu un Totu. . [26] Kā stāsta, Sets apskauda savu brāli Ozīrisu par to, ka viņa priekšā tika piešķirts tronis, tāpēc viņš plānoja viņu nogalināt. Ozīrisa sieva Isisa cīnījās šurpu turpu ar Setu, lai iegūtu Ozīrisa ķermeni, un šīs cīņas rezultātā Osirisa gars tika zaudēts. [27] Neskatoties uz to, Osiriss augšāmcēlās un tika atjaunots kā dievs. [28] Papildus Ozīrisa sprieduma atkārtošanai tika veikti daudzi bēru gājieni visā tuvējā nekropolē, kas simbolizēja dažādus svētos ceļojumus. [26]

Bēru gājiens uz kapu parasti ietvēra liellopus, kas velk ķermeni kamanu tipa nesējā, kam seko draugi un ģimene. Gājiena laikā priesteris sadedzināja vīraks un ielej pienu pirms mirušā ķermeņa. [26] Ierodoties kapā un būtībā nākamajā dzīvē, priesteris veica mirušā mutes atklāšanas ceremoniju. Mirušā galva tika pagriezta uz dienvidiem, un ķermenis tika iedomāts kā mirušā statujas kopija. Mirušā mutes atvēršana simbolizēja iespēju personai runāt un aizstāvēties sprieduma procesa laikā. Pēc tam mirušajam tika piedāvātas preces, lai noslēgtu ceremoniju. [26]

Balzamēšana Rediģēt

Mirušā ķermeņa saglabāšana bija kritiska, ja mirušais gribēja iespēju tikt uz dzīvi pēcnāves dzīvē. Saskaņā ar senās ēģiptiešu dvēseles jēdzienu, ka, kas pārstāvēja vitalitāti, atstāj ķermeni pēc cilvēka nāves. [29] Tikai tad, ja ķermenis tiek balzamēts noteiktā veidā ka atgriezties mirušā ķermenī, un notiks atdzimšana. [25] Balzamētāji saņēma ķermeni pēc nāves un sistematizēti sagatavoja to mumifikācijai. Bojāgājušo ģimenei un draugiem bija iespēja izvēlēties dažādas ķermeņa struktūras sagatavošanas cenas, līdzīgi kā mūsdienu bēru namos. Tālāk balzamētāji pavadīja ķermeni līdz ibw, tulkots kā “attīrīšanās vieta”, telts, kurā tika mazgāts ķermenis, un pēc tam nefer, “Skaistuma māja”, kur notika mumifikācija. [25]

Mumifikācijas process Rediģēt

Lai dzīvotu visu mūžību un tiktu parādīts Ozīrisa priekšā, mirušā ķermenis bija jāsaglabā ar mumifikāciju, lai dvēsele varētu ar to atkal apvienoties un izbaudīt pēcnāves dzīvi. Galvenais mumifikācijas process bija ķermeņa saglabāšana, dehidrējot to, izmantojot natronu - dabisko sāli, kas atrodams Wadi Natrun. Ķermenis tika iztukšots no jebkādiem šķidrumiem un atstāts ar ādu, matiem un muskuļiem. [30] Tiek uzskatīts, ka mumifikācijas process aizņēma līdz septiņdesmit dienām. Šī procesa laikā, gatavojoties apbedīšanai, īpašie priesteri strādāja par balzamētājiem, apstrādājot un ietinot mirušā ķermeni.

Mumifikācijas process bija pieejams ikvienam, kurš to varēja atļauties. Tika uzskatīts, ka pat tie, kuri nevar atļauties šo procesu, tomēr var izbaudīt pēcnāves dzīvi, pareizi lasot burvestības. Mumifikācija pastāvēja trīs dažādos procesos, sākot no visdārgākā, vidēji dārgā un vienkāršākā vai lētākā. [25] Klasiskākā, izplatītākā un dārgākā mumifikācijas metode datēta ar 18. dinastiju. Pirmais solis bija noņemt iekšējos orgānus un šķidrumu, lai ķermenis nesabruktu. Pēc tam, kad balzamētāji tika novietoti uz galda, viņi izņēma smadzenes ar procesu, ko sauca par ekscerebrāciju, ievietojot metāla āķi caur nāsi, izlaužot to smadzenēs. Viņi ar āķi izņēma, cik varēja, bet pārējo sašķidrināja ar narkotikām un notecināja. [25] Viņi izmeta smadzenes, jo domāja, ka sirds visu domā. Nākamais solis bija noņemt iekšējos orgānus, plaušas, aknas, kuņģi un zarnas un ievietot tos burciņveida burkās ar vākiem, kas veidoti kā aizsargājošo dievību galvas, četri Horusa dēli: Imsety, Hapy, Duamutef un Qebhseneuf. Imseti bija cilvēka galva, un viņš sargāja aknas. Hapijs bija pērtiķa galva, un sargāja plaušas. [25] Dažreiz četras burkas ar baldahīnu tika ievietotas nojumes lādē un apraktas kopā ar mumificēto ķermeni. Nojumes lāde atgādināja "miniatūru zārku" un bija sarežģīti nokrāsota. Senie ēģiptieši uzskatīja, ka, apglabājot mirušo ar saviem orgāniem, viņi var atkal pievienoties tiem pēcnāves dzīvē. [26] Citas reizes orgāni tika iztīrīti un attīrīti, un pēc tam atgriezti ķermenī. [25] Pēc tam ķermeņa dobums tika izskalots un notīrīts ar vīnu un virkni garšvielu. Ķermenis tika sašūts ar aromātiskiem augiem un garšvielām, kas palika iekšā. [25] Sirds palika ķermenī, jo tiesas zālē tā tiktu nosvērta pret Maata spalvu. Pēc tam, kad ķermenis tika mazgāts ar vīnu, tas tika pildīts ar natrona maisiņiem. Dehidratācijas process ilga 40 dienas. [27]

Otrā procesa daļa aizņēma 30 dienas. Tas bija laiks, kad mirušais pārvērtās daļēji dievišķā būtnē, un viss, kas bija palicis ķermenī no pirmās daļas, tika noņemts, kam sekoja pirmā vīna un pēc tam eļļu uzklāšana. Eļļas bija paredzētas rituāliem, kā arī lai novērstu ekstremitāšu un kaulu plīšanu, kamēr tās tiek ietītas. Ķermeni dažreiz krāsoja ar zeltainiem sveķiem, kas aizsargāja ķermeni no baktērijām un kukaiņiem. Turklāt šī prakse balstījās uz pārliecību, ka dievišķām būtnēm ir zelta miesa. Pēc tam ķermenis tika iesaiņots sloksnēs sagrieztā veļā ar amuletiem, kamēr priesteris skaitīja lūgšanas un dedzināja vīraks. Veļa tika pielīmēta pie ķermeņa, izmantojot gumiju, nevis līmi. [25] Apģērbs nodrošināja ķermenim fizisku aizsardzību pret stihijām, un atkarībā no tā, cik bagāta bija mirušā ģimene, mirušo varēja ģērbt ar ornamentu apbedīšanas masku un apvalku. [25] Īpaša uzmanība tika pievērsta galvai, rokām, kājām un dzimumorgāniem, jo ​​mūsdienu mūmijas atklāj papildu ietīšanas un polsterējuma vietas šajās vietās. [31] Mūmijas tika identificētas, izmantojot mazas, koka vārda zīmes, kas parasti piesietas mirušā kaklam. [25] 70 dienu process ir saistīts ar Ozīrisu un zvaigžņu Sothis garumu debesīs. [28]

Otra, vidēji dārga mumifikācijas iespēja neietvēra griezumu vēdera dobumā vai iekšējo orgānu izņemšanu. Tā vietā balzamētāji ķermenī injicēja ciedra koka eļļu, kas neļāva šķidrumam iziet no ķermeņa. Pēc tam ķermenis tika noguldīts natronā noteiktu dienu skaitu. Pēc tam eļļa tika izvadīta no ķermeņa, un līdz ar to nāca iekšējie orgāni, kuņģis un zarnas, kuras sašķidrināja ciedra eļļa. Mīkstums izšķīda natronā, un no mirušā ķermeņa palika tikai āda un kauli. Mirstīgās atliekas tiek atdotas ģimenei. [25] Lētākā, visvienkāršākā mumifikācijas metode, ko bieži izvēlējās nabadzīgie, ietvēra mirušā iekšējo orgānu attīrīšanu un pēc tam ķermeņa ievietošanu natronā 70 dienas. Pēc tam ķermenis tika atdots ģimenei. [25]

Dzīvnieku mumifikācija Rediģēt

Dzīvnieki tika mumificēti Senajā Ēģiptē daudzu iemeslu dēļ. Mājdzīvnieki, kuriem bija īpašs īpašnieks, tika apglabāti līdzās. Tomēr dzīvnieki tika uzskatīti ne tikai par mājdzīvniekiem, bet arī par dievu iemiesojumiem. Tāpēc šie dzīvnieki tika apglabāti, lai godinātu senās ēģiptiešu dievības. Dažas dzīvnieku mumifikācijas tika veiktas, lai kalpotu par svētiem upuriem dieviem, kuri bieži izpaudās kā dzīvnieki, piemēram, kaķi, vardes, govis, paviāni un grifi. Citi dzīvnieki tika mumificēti ar nodomu kļūt par pārtikas piedāvājumu cilvēkiem pēcnāves dzīvē. Turklāt līdzās viņiem tika apglabāti mājdzīvnieki, kuriem īpašniekiem bija īpaša nozīme.

Ap kapiem visā Dayr al-Barsha, koptu ciematā Ēģiptes vidienē, ir atklātas vairāku veidu dzīvnieku mirstīgās atliekas. Šahtās un apbedījumu kamerās atrastās mirstīgās atliekas bija suņi, lapsas, ērgļu pūces, sikspārņi, grauzēji un čūskas. Tika noteikts, ka tās ir personas, kuras noguldījumos bija iekļuvušas nejauši. Citas atrastās dzīvnieku mirstīgās atliekas bija biežākas un atkārtojās vairāk nekā tās personas, kuras nejauši tika iesprostotas šajās kapenēs. Šīs atliekas ietvēra daudzus gazeļu un liellopu kaulus, kā arī teļus un kazas, kuras, domājams, izraisīja cilvēku uzvedība. Tas bija saistīts ar konstatējumu, ka dažām mirstīgajām atliekām ir mainīti fragmenti, tās trūkst vai tās ir atdalītas no sākotnējiem skeletiem. Uz šīm atliekām bija arī krāsas pēdas un griezuma pēdas, īpaši redzamas ar liellopu galvaskausiem un kājām. Pamatojoties uz to, Dayr al-Barsha kapu dabiskā vide un fakts, ka tika atrastas tikai dažas šo dzīvnieku daļas, var izslēgt dabiskas nogulsnēšanās iespēju, un šo atlieku cēlonis, visticamāk, ir radīts ar dzīvnieku upuriem, jo ​​acīmredzot tikai galva, priekškāja un pēdas tika atlasītas nogulsnēšanai kapenēs. Saskaņā ar Kristofera Eira pētījumu, liellopu gaļa patiesībā nebija daļa no ikdienas uztura Senajā Ēģiptē, jo gaļas patēriņš notika tikai svinību laikā, ieskaitot bēru un morga rituālus, kā arī praksi nodrošināt mirušo ar lopu piedāvājumiem. atgriežoties Predynastic periodā. [32]

Pēc tam, kad mūmija bija sagatavota, priesteris to simboliski atkārtoti animēja. Mutes ceremonijas atklāšanu vadīja priesteris, kurš izrunāja burvestību un ar svinīgu brīdinājumu - vara vai akmens asmeni - pieskārās mūmijai vai sarkofāgam. Šī ceremonija nodrošināja to, ka mūmija varēja elpot un runāt pēcnāves dzīvē. Līdzīgā veidā priesteris varēja izrunāt burvestības, lai atdzīvinātu mūmijas rokas, kājas un citas ķermeņa daļas.

Priesteri, iespējams, pat ķēniņa pēctecis, sāka pārvietot ķermeni caur kāpņu ceļu uz mirušo templi. Šeit tika skaitītas lūgšanas, dedzināti vīraks un veikti vairāk rituālu, lai palīdzētu sagatavot karali pēdējam ceļojumam. Pēc tam karaļa mūmija tika ievietota piramīdā kopā ar milzīgu daudzumu pārtikas, dzērienu, mēbelēm, drēbēm un rotaslietām, kuras bija jāizmanto pēcnāves dzīvē. Piramīda tika aizzīmogota, lai neviens tajā vairs neiekļūtu. Tomēr ķēniņa dvēsele varēja pārvietoties pa apbedījumu kameru, kā vēlējās. Pēc bērēm karalis kļūst par dievu, un viņu var pielūgt tempļos blakus savai piramīdai. [33]

Senos laikos ēģiptieši tika aprakti tieši zemē. Tā kā laiks bija tik karsts un sauss, ķermeņiem bija viegli palikt saglabātiem. Parasti ķermeņi tika apglabāti augļa stāvoklī. [34] Senie ēģiptieši uzskatīja, ka apbedīšanas procesam ir būtiska nozīme cilvēku nosūtīšanā uz ērtu pēcnāves dzīvi. Ēģiptieši uzskatīja, ka pēc nāves mirušajam joprojām var būt tādas dusmas vai dusmas kā dzīvajam. Bija arī paredzēts, ka mirušais atbalstīs un palīdzēs savai dzīvajai ģimenei. [35] Viņi uzskatīja, ka Ba un Ka are what enabled the dead to support their family. The Ba made it possible for an invisible twin to be released from the body to support the family, while the Ka would recognize the twin when it would come back to the body. [36] With the ideas of the dead being so valuable, it is clear why the Egyptians treated the deceased with respect. The less fortunate Egyptians still wanted their family members to be given a proper burial. A typical burial would be held in the desert where the family would wrap the body in a cloth and bury it with everyday objects for the dead to be comfortable. [37] Although some could afford mummification, most commoners were not mummified due to the expense. [38] Often the poor are found in mass graves where their bodies are not mummified and only with minimal household objects, spread out throughout the desert, often in areas that are now populated. [ nepieciešams citāts ]

The tomb was the housing for the deceased and served two crucial functions: the tomb provided infinite protection for the deceased to rest, as well as a place for mourners to perform rituals in which aided the deceased into eternal life. Therefore, the ancient Egyptians were very serious about the way in which the tombs were built. [39] Two hallmarks of the tomb included: a burial chamber, which housed the physical body of the deceased (inside a coffin) as well as funerary objects deemed most important, and a "cult place," which resembled a chapel where mourners, family, and friends could congregate. The tomb of a king included a full temple, instead of a chapel. [39]

Typically, the tomb of a deceased person was located somewhere close by their home community. The ancient Egyptians opted to bury the deceased in land that was not particularly fertile or useful for vegetation. Therefore, tombs were mostly built in desert areas. Tombs were usually built near each other and rarely stood alone. For a deceased king, however, the tomb was located in a place of utmost sacredness. [39]

In the Prehistoric Egypt, bodies were buried in deserts because they would naturally be preserved by dehydration. The "graves" were small oval or rectangular pits dug in the sand. They could give the body of the deceased in a tight position on its left side alongside a few jars of food and drink and slate palettes with magical religious spells. The size of graves eventually increased according to status and wealth. The dry, desert conditions were a benefit in ancient Egypt for burials of the poor, who could not afford the complex burial preparations that the wealthy had.

The simple graves evolved into mudbrick structures called mastabas. Royal mastabas later developed into step pyramids and then "true pyramids." [40] As soon as a king took the throne he would start to build his pyramid. Rituals of the burial, including the "Opening of the mouth ceremony" took place at the Valley Temple. [33] [41] While a pyramid's large size was made to protect against robbery, it may also be connected to a religious belief about the sun god, Ra. [42]

A majority of cemeteries were located on the west bank of the Nile, which was metaphorically viewed as "the realm of the dead." The tomb was said to represent the deceased's place in the cosmos, which ultimately depended on the social class of the deceased. If the deceased was of a notably high-class, they were buried near the king, whereas middle and lower class individuals were simply buried near the communities in which they had lived. [39] In many cases, the tombs of the high-class were situated in accordance with the tombs of the lower classes so that they would be viewed as a "focal point." For example, one burial site was designed so that the tombs of the governors were placed alongside the slope of a hill, whereas the tombs of the governor's attendants were placed at the foot of the hill. [39]

After having been preserved, the mummy was placed into a coffin. Although the coffins that housed the deceased bodies were made simply of wood, they were intricately painted and designed to suit each individual. During the Old Kingdom, the following was included on each coffin: the title of the deceased, a list of offerings, a false compartment through which ka could pass through, and painted eyes so that the deceased could look through the coffin. [43] The decorations on the coffin usually fit the deceased's status.

During the Middle Kingdom, the coffin was treated as if it were a "miniature tomb" and was painted and inscribed like so. Goddesses Isis and Nephthys were painted on the coffins, and were said to guard the deceased in the afterlife. Along the sides of the coffins, the four sons of Horus were painted, amongst other gods. Prayers were often inscribed on the coffins as well. [43]

Anthropoid coffins soon emerged, which were tailored to the contour of the deceased's body. The deceased's face and hair was painted onto the coffin so to personalize it further. [43] A sarcophagus, which is a large, stone container, was used to house the coffin, and provide supplementary protection to the dead body. The Ancient Egyptians translated the word "sarcophagus" to mean "possessor of life," and therefore, the sarcophagus would aid the deceased into the afterlife. [44]

One of the funerary practices followed by the Egyptians was preparing properly for the afterlife. Ka, the vital force within the Ancient Egyptian concept of the soul, would not return to the deceased body if embalming was not carried out in the proper fashion. [29] In this case, the body decayed, and possibly became unrecognizable, which rendered the afterlife unattainable for the deceased person. [25] If the proper precautions were not taken, damnation would occur. Damnation meant that Egyptians would not experience the glories of the afterlife where they became a deified figure and would be welcomed by the Gods. [45] Instead, damnation was depicted in the books of the underworld. It was a place of opposites chaos, fire, and struggle. [45] Different pages of the books of the underworld depict different perspectives of what happens during damnation. It discusses cutting out humanity and individuality from the person and reversing the cosmic order. [45]

The idea of judgement went as follows: in order to be considered for the admittance into the afterlife, those who died were obligated to undergo a multi-step judgement by certain gods. [39] The concept and belief in judgement is outlined in the Book of the Dead, a funerary text of the New Kingdom. The Book of the Dead is composed of spells relating to the deceased and the afterlife. Spell 125, in particular, is understood to be delivered by the deceased at the outset of the judgement process. [39]

The visual picture of what judgement looks like has been discovered through ancient Egyptian ruins and artefacts. The procedure was depicted as follows: the deceased's heart was weighed in comparison to the feather of Maat, while Ammit awaited to eat the heart (if the deceased was found to be a sinner). [39] Osiris was the judge (among others), and represented an ideal output of the judgement process for the deceased who entered his judgement hall. This is because he resurrected and regained his godly status after he was justified against his brother Set, who wrongly murdered him. [28] The deceased pleaded to Osiris that they had not committed sin, which is known as a "negative confession." [28] The forty-two Assessors of Maat judged how virtuous the life of the deceased was, and this represented the principal element of the deceased entering the afterlife. After passing judgement, the family and friends of the deceased celebrated them and boasted about their righteousness to attain entry into the afterlife. [25]

Many mummies were provided with some form of funerary literature to take with them to the afterlife. Most funerary literature consists of lists of spells and instructions for navigating the afterlife. During the Old Kingdom, only the pharaoh had access to this material, which scholars refer to as the Pyramid Texts. The Pyramid Texts are a collection of spells to assure the royal resurrection and protect the pharaoh from various malignant influences. The Pharaoh Unas was the first to use this collection of spells, as he and a few subsequent pharaohs had them carved on the walls of their pyramids. [46] These texts were individually chosen from a larger bank of spells.

In the First Intermediate Period and in the Middle Kingdom, some of the Pyramid Text spells also are found in burial chambers of high officials and on many coffins, where they begin to evolve into what scholars call the Coffin Texts. In this period, the nobles and many non-royal Egyptians began to have access to funerary literature. Although many spells from the earlier texts were carried over, the new coffin texts also had additional spells, along with slight changes made to make this new funerary text more fit for the nobility. [6]

In the New Kingdom, the Coffin Texts became the Book of the Dead, or the Funeral Papyri, and would last through the Late Kingdom. The text in these books was divided according to chapters/ spells, which were almost two-hundred in number. Each one of these texts was individualized for the deceased, though to varying degrees. If the person was rich enough, then they could commission their own personal version of the text that would include only the spells that they wanted. However, if one was not so wealthy, then one had to make do with the pre-made versions that had spaces left for the name of the deceased.

If the scribe ran out of room while doing the transcription, he would just stop the spell wherever he was and would not continue. [47] It is not until the Twenty-sixth Dynasty that there began to be any regulation of the order or even the number of spells that were to be included in the Book of the Dead. At this time, the regulation is set at 192 spells to be placed in the book, with certain ones holding the same place at all times. [48] This makes it seem as if the order of the texts was not what was important, so the person could place them in an order that he was comfortable with, but rather that it was what was written that mattered.

Although the types of burial goods changed throughout ancient Egyptian history, their purpose to protect the deceased and provide sustenance in the afterlife remained.

From the earliest periods of Egyptian history, all Egyptians were buried with at least some goods that they thought were necessary after death. At a minimum, these consisted of everyday objects such as bowls, combs, and other trinkets, along with food. Wealthier Egyptians could afford to be buried with jewelry, furniture, and other valuables, which made them targets of tomb robbers. In the early Dynastic Period, tombs were filled with daily life objects, such as furniture, jewelry and other valuables. They also contained many stone and pottery vessels. [49] One important factor in the development of Ancient Egyptian tombs was the need of storage space for funerary goods.

As burial customs developed in the Old Kingdom, wealthy citizens were buried in wooden or stone coffins. However, the number of burial goods declined. They were often just a set of copper models, tools and vessels. [50] Starting in the First Intermediate period, wooden models became very popular burial goods. These wooden models often depict everyday activities that the deceased expected to continue doing in the afterlife. Also, a type of rectangular coffin became the standard, being brightly painted and often including an offering formula. Objects of daily use were not often included in the tombs during this period.

At the end of the Middle Kingdom, new object types were introduced into burials, such as the first shabtis and the first heart scarabs. Shabtis were little clay statues made to perform tasks on command for the pharaoh. Now objects of daily use appear in tombs again, often magical items already employed for protecting the living. Scarabs (beetles) collect animal dung and roll it into little balls. To the Egyptians, these balls looked like the life-giving Sun, so they hoped that scarabs would bring them long life. Scarabs have been found in tombs and graves. [51]

In the New Kingdom, some of the old burial customs changed. For example, an anthropoid coffin shape became standardized, and the deceased were provided with a small shabti statue, which the Egyptians believed would perform work for them in the afterlife. Elite burials were often filled with objects of daily use. Under Ramesses II and later all daily life objects disappear from tombs. They most often only contained a selection of items especially made for the burial. Also, in later burials, the numbers of shabti statues increased in some burials, numbering more than four hundred statues. In addition to these shabti statues, the deceased could be buried with many different types of magical figurines to protect them from harm.

Funerary boats were a part of some ancient Egyptian burials. [52] Boats played a major role in Egyptian religion because they were conceived as the main means by which the gods traveled across the sky and through to the netherworld. One type of boat used at funerals was for making pilgrimages to holy sites such as Abydos. A large funerary boat, for example, was found near the pyramid of the Old Kingdom Pharaoh Khufu. The funerary boats were usually made of wood the Egyptians used a collection of papyrus reeds and tied them together with the wood very tightly. [53] The most common route for funerary boats was the River Nile to the afterlife. The boat carried the coffin and often had a dog in the boat since they believed a dog would lead the deceased to the afterlife. [54] The boats usually measured about 20 feet or longer. These however did not match those of the great pharaohs like Pharaoh Khufu (who built the Great Pyramid). His funerary boat was approximately 144 foot long with 12 oars. Common funerary boats were smaller sized with few oars. [55]

At the Ure Museum, there is an Egyptian funerary boat on display that represents a typical tomb offering. This boat symbolizes the transport of the dead from life to the afterlife. In Ancient Egypt death was seen as a boat journey. More specifically, it was seen as a trip across their River Nile that joined the North and South. This funerary boat offering was added to the museum's collection in 1923 from the Liverpool Institute of Archaeology from the Tomb of the Officials at Beni Hassan.

Through the study of mummies themselves in addition to ancient writers and modern scientists, a better understanding of the Ancient Egyptian mummification process is promoted. The majority of what is known to be true about the mummification process is based on the writing of early historians who carefully recorded the processes-- one of which was Herodotus. Now, modern day archaeologists are using the writings of early historians as a basis for their study. The advancement of new technology including x-rays has allowed for the analysis of mummies without destroying the elaborate outer wrappings of the body. In addition to the use of x-rays, autopsies are also being performed in order to gain a better understanding of the diseases suffered by Ancient Egyptians as well as the treatments used for these diseases. A pregnant mummy sheds light on pregnancy complications and prenatal care and treatments. [56] [57] In learning their age of death, experts are able to create a timeline of the dates regarding the ruling of Egyptian kings. In looking at the bones of the mummified bodies, experts get a better idea of the average height and life span. Studying Ancient Egyptian Mummies, archaeologists are able to learn about the past.


All the times artists used blood for radical work

Blood drips with symbolism. Blood animates the veins of the living, and through its sacrificial letting, can connect us with the sacred. Mesoamerican cultures drenched the earth with ritualistic blood shedding Catholic ceremonies transform wine into the blood of Christ. Despite its consecrated role in religion and ritual, within our modern institutions blood has become a hazardous pathogen, a dirty disease-carrier. Blood has been sanitised from most of our daily doings the risk and power of blood flows quarantined in our veins.

Artists use blood in their work to physicalise its stakes, to add to its aura. There’s something risky about using blood, something dangerous in its potential impurity. Most viewers find bloodied work icky and off-putting—which is ironic given that, like all bodily fluids, we all carry them within. The grossness around blood is connected to the grossness we've been programmed to feel about our own bodies it's a side effect of alienation. Art that’s splattered with blood shocks us back into our corporeality.

For artists, blood presents a host of challenges and liabilities. It is, for example, illegal to transport blood and other biohazard substances using government bureaucracies. Plus, given that its organic matter, blood doesn’t conserve easily. The artist’s historical attraction to blood, then, isn’t one of convenience, but rather, one of risk-taking. Post-AIDS, blood-dripped art is often deemed political. This is especially true for women, who’ve unsurprisingly recycled the biological waste of their monthly cycles into material for art about their condition. As a nod to the bloodied delights of Halloween, here's eight artworks made with the horror and power of gore.

Andres Serrano, Blood and Semen V

ANDRES SERRANO, BLOOD AND SEMEN V, 1990

Best known for his controversial series of pissing Christ portraits, Andres Serrano’s work muddles with the sacrilegious. Bodily fluids drench his images, often at the cost of public incitement over his use of religious iconography. But other works, like this one included in the series Blood and Semen, remove the fluids from any corporeal or religious context, allowing the blood to stain in hauntingly abstract compositions. Although the meaning of the image is left up to interpretation, Serrano did play with blood when the threat of AIDS was filling public consciousness, giving the piece a certain threatening air.

Franko B - I’m Not Your Babe

FRANKO B, I’M NOT YOUR BABE, 1995

Franko B’s use of ritualistic blood letting bleeds into the disturbed, making use of the theatrical, propping himself as a "mute body-object" that is, drop by drop, disintegrated on stage. Although blood is often marked with dirtiness, for Franko, his performative bleeding is closer to the ancient medical practices of cleansing the body through the draining of blood. As always, blood carries the disease, but here, cleansing can come from its shedding.

Ana Mendieta – Body Tracks

ANA MENDIETA, BODY TRACKS, 1982

Ana Mendieta performed Body Tracks in 1982 New York City — all the press release warned was that "white cloth and animal blood" would be used. In the performance, Mendieta thoroughly dipped her hands into the mixture of animal blood and tempera and dragged her hand across three sheets of paper affixed to the wall. At first she made handprints, and then pressed her body down the paper, leaving a corporeal trace — literally tracks of her body — across the work. The use of blood only underlined the physicality of the work. Our blood always leaves a trace.

Hermann Nitsch

HERMANN NITSCH, BLOOD PICTURE, 1962

Hermann Nitsch is a multimedia artist and performer associated with the Viennese Actionists — a collective known for its brutal and bloody performances that included crucifying animal carcasses and ripping them apart. Blood Picture is one of the first works Nitsch made with blood. He soaked the canvas in it, and later splashed on more, leaving a dried painting that resembled used medical gauze. It's unclear whether the blood is his own.

Tracey Emin’s "My Bed"

TRACEY EMIN, MY BED, 1999

The bad girl of the Young British Artists made one of her biggest splashes when she submitted this sculpture into the 1999 Turner Prize competition. The work is often lauded for its honesty. Emin displayed an unpolished peep into her bedroom — blood-stained underwear and all. It is an unconventional form of self-portraiture, giving the viewer a glimpse into Emin’s chaos. Here, Emin uses blood to raise the stakes of the real and blood becomes a voucher for artistic daringness and authenticity.

Kiki Smith, "Blood Pool"

KIKI SMITH, BLOOD POOL, 1992

Despite not actually using any blood to make this piece, Kiki Smith's fetal-like sculpture connotes all of the texture and color of fresh flesh. With the title, Blood Pool, you can almost imagine the cuddled child swaddling in a pool of its own blood. The back of the wax sculpture features an exposed spine, adding to the fragility and spookiness of the piece. This sentiment is especially salient given that it was made in the wake of the AIDS crisis, where blood represented both life and death.

Gina Pane, Action Psyche

GINA PANE, ACTION PSYCHE, 1974

Gina Pane was fascinated with self-mortification. Her art is excruciating, both for the viewer and for the artist, whose performances comprise of her cutting herself across her body. This self-enacted violence undercuts the stereotype of feminine passivity by countering it with extreme aggression. Pane plays with masochism, letting her blood be witness to our culture’s sedated relationship to witnessing everyday violence.

Christen Clifford, I Want Your Blood

CHRISTEN CLIFFORD, I WANT YOUR BLOOD, 2013

Christen Clifford leads a new wave of feminist performance art steeped in the politics of menstruation. In I Want Your Blood, a performance in three parts, Clifford has for the past year collected several women’s menstrual blood, addressing and undermining the stigma attached to our periods. The collected samples of blood will be bottled together in glass containers, poured into little perfume vials, and, as Clifford did in a recent performance, used as paint to dip willing young men as paint brushes a-la Yves Klein. Breaking with past uses of blood, that reveres its risk and dirtiness, Clifford hopes for a celebration and reclamation of our own menstruation.

Portia Munson, Menstrual Print With Text

PORTIA MUNSON, MENSTRUAL PRINT WITH TEXT, 1993

Portia Munson’s practice hones in on her avarice for amassing. She’s best known for collecting hundreds of colour-coded objects, creating sculptures that accumulate hues. For this projec, she also collected her menstrual blood. Starting in the late 1980s, Munson made menstrual prints every month for about 8 years. She made these prints by pressing sheets of paper against my body while the blood was flowing. For exhibitions, Munson would display each month's prints in a grid on the wall to resemble a calendar. For this work, Munson inscribed a text that names both personal and historical narratives about menstruation and menstrual rites. The personal elements largely focused on dreams that I had that related to menstruation. Each print reads like a Rorschach, resembling creatures both touching and spooky, like an angel, or a bird, or a bat.


Art History of The Ahwahnee in Yosemite

In addition to being situated in one of the most picturesque landscapes on earth and designated as a National Historic Landmark, The Ahwahnee also boasts an amazing art collection that complements the architecture of the hotel. Did you know that The Ahwahnee displays one of the greatest Persian rug collections in the world? Though the design motifs found throughout the hotel are inspired by Native American patterns, the geometric patterns found in kilims, soumaks, kalamkars and other Middle Eastern rugs blend in seamlessly. The hotel’s original decorators – Dr. Phyllis Ackerman and Dr. Arthur Upham Pope – were experts in Persian arts and selected a variety of Persian rugs for the hotel’s public spaces since there wasn’t enough time before the grand opening to have Navajo rugs created. The Ahwahnee required fifty-nine rugs in total at opening and they were purchased in New York in 1927, ranging in price from 48.75 to $93.75 for a total of $5659. Today, many of the original rugs are displayed in the hotel’s public spaces mounted on the walls. Some are fully framed and the remnants of others are framed that proved too fragile over time.

Persian rug from the hotel’s original decor on display in the Mural Room.

The geometric patterns found in the rugs also inspired six art deco mosaic floor designs created by Henry Temple Howard with a special patent-pending process that combined linoleum, cork, clay, sawdust and linseed oil. Referred to as “rubber tile”, the mosaic designs were based on basket patterns from the Yurok, Hupa and Pomo tribes of California. Baskets and basket patterns are prominently displayed throughout the hotel to this day. U.C. Berkeley graduate Jeannette Dyer Spencer created the striking basket mural above the fireplace in the elevator lobby and the equally colorful stencil patterns found on the walls and ceilings throughout the hotel. Spencer made such a great impression with her work that she was hired permanently as the hotel’s interior decorator after the opening of the hotel on July 14, 1927. The baskets currently on display in the Great Lounge represent the basket artistry of California tribes such as Miwok, Pomo, Mono, Hupa and Yokuts, and another Native American tribe is also represented by the Pima of Arizona.

Floor mosaic at The Ahwahnee.

Basket mural by Jeannette Dyer Spencer.

Native American baskets on display in the Great Lounge at The Ahwahnee.

Though not placed in the hotel as part of the original decor, the watercolor paintings of Gunnar Widforss now line the hallway from the registration lobby to the Dining Room and Great Lounge. A Swedish artist who preferred painting landscapes such as the Grand Canyon was already famous by the time he arrived in Yosemite. Widforss was contracted by the Yosemite Park and Curry Company to create paintings of Yosemite suitable for the grand scale of The Ahwahnee architecture and the landscape that surrounds it.

Vernal Fall by Gunnar Widforss.

The Mural Room, once known as the Writing Room, features a toile pente (painted linen) mural on the wall created by Robert Boardman Howard for the hotel’s opening in 1927. The fifteenth century style of the mural features the native flora and fauna of Yosemite National Park in a pattern of flowering plants with animals large and small, serving not only as historic decor, but also as a nature guide to Yosemite. The Mural Room also features a unique corner fireplace with a hammered-copper hood and the only oak floor in the hotel’s public spaces.

Detail of the mural by Robert Boardman Howard on the wall of the Mural Room.

Though all of the decor delights park visitors in the public areas of the hotel, the most striking decorative element is the custom 5 x 6 foot stained glass panels that cap the ten floor-to-ceiling windows of the Great Lounge. Also designed by Jeannette Dyer Spencer, the stained glass panels were a last minute addition to hotel architect Gilbert Stanley Underwood’s original design. Though Spencer went on to contribute to the Ahwahnee decor in many areas, she was initially selected by Ackerman and Pope specifically for her background in stained glass design. Her selection and design experience provided The Ahwahnee with one of its most enduring artistic elements.


Byproducts/Waste

Of greatest concern are the chemicals used in retting. These chemicals must be neutralized before being released into water supplies. The stalks, leaves, seed pods, etc. are natural organic materials and are not hazardous unless impregnated with much of the chemicals left behind in the retting process. The only other concern with the processing of linen is the smell—it is said that hand-retted linen produces quite a stench and is most unpleasant to experience.


The Original Organic Paint

Versatile and made from casein, a dairy protein, milk paint has a long history of use on furniture, walls, even exterior cladding. When mixed with natural earth pigments, milk paint has a unique, flat finish with subtle variations in shading that suggest the patina of age.

Milk paints are most familiar in the colors of the earth, particularly oxide-containing clays, but the palette isn&rsquot limited to these tones. Since the paint comes in dry powder form, the painter has complete control over the outcome, including the creation of custom tones, tints or shades, and opacity. For example, simply varying the amount of water added to the mix can result in effects from translucence to a soft color wash, or to an opaque solid color.

Before pre-mixed, store-bought paints were common, colors were mixed by hand. Here a muller is used to grind dry pigments into the binder (e.g., oil, casein).

Milk paints are especially prized because they don&rsquot fade over time. Because the paint bonds to porous surfaces like wood, it won&rsquot chip or peel, either. It does, however, stain easily. Most companies recommend that it be sealed in high-traffic areas, and offer complementary lines of sealants.

In the past, homeowners added linseed oil or tar derivatives to strengthen milk paint&rsquos durability for outdoor use. Today, at least one milk paint company, Olde Century Colors, offers an acrylic latex milk paint. The colors and appearance are typical of the past, but the paint has all the durability of modern formulations.


To recreate Scandi style

Therefore, to recreate Scandi style for your home, remember the mantra of light, white, texture, natural finishes and simplicity and you can start to get a feel of how to successfully incorporate this look.

Do you love Scandi style? Let me know how you have used this in your decorating schemes – I would love to hear from you in the comments section below.

You should always start any decorating project with a mood board. Find out how to put one together with my FREE e-book which can be downloaded here from my FREE Resource Library.

If you still need assistance, I offer an e-consultation service to help you with your decorating project, renovation or new build. From answering one key question that is troubling you to putting together a full colour scheme, I have a package to suit you. Or I can tailor something especially for you. Find out more here.


Nephthys on Painted Linen - History

Wool is an animal fiber produced from spinning the hair of sheep. As a protein-based fiber, wool that is burned exudes the smell of burning hair. Wool flags generally feel coarse and the weave of wool fabric is generally looser than cotton or linen, and certainly looser than silk. Wool is chosen for flags because of its excellent ability to withstand water. Since it is a product of natural animal hair, it doesn't rot as readily as vegetable fibers like cotton or linen. Wool over 200 years old can still be vibrant and supple. Moths do tend to feed on wool, and many holes in wool flags are due to mothing, especially with flags that are stored for years in attics, barns, garages and basements.

When examined very closely, the earliest wool flags, which date to the 18th and early 19th century, were made of wool bunting that is very loosely and irregularly woven. This pre-industrial era wool is distinct and a good indicator of whether or not a flag with a low star count is in fact a possible authentic period example rather than a later-period flag. Shown here are close up images of wool bunting from flags of various eras, from the early 19th century through the 20th century. Note how in the earliest flag, the weave is very irregular, whereas in the wool bunting produced by machine in the mid- to late 19th century, and into the 20th century, the weave becomes very consistent and regular. (For more information see Wool, Wikipedia)

Cotton is a vegetable fiber produced from the boll that grows around the seeds within the seed pod of cotton plants. The fiber is spun into cotton yarn or cotton thread, and woven to produce cotton cloth. There are very early examples of cotton American flags, including those that predate the Civil War. Cotton was widely available as a household fabric, and was especially more prevalent for home use than animal materials such as wool bunting or silk. For many homemade American flags, cotton was the fabric of choice. When wet, cotton is heavier than wool and tends to become brittle and deteriorate. Cotton stored in hot or moist climates can also experience dry rotting. On most wool flags, cotton is typically the fabric of choice for sewn stars, owing to cotton's brighter coloration and tighter weave. (For more information, see Cotton, Wikipedia)

Linen is a vegetable fiber made from the fiber of the flax plant. Linen textiles are some of the oldest in the world. Homespun linen is a staple fabric. Though much less common than cotton today, linen fabric produced in early America was valued for its durability (linen is 2 to 3 times stronger than cotton) and, as an excellent conductor of heat, its coolness in warm weather. (For more information see Linen, Wikipedia.)

One of the best case studies for the use of linen in an early American flag is the 19 Star flag in this collection, as described below. The original 19 stars of the flag are made of identical homespun linen as the stripes of the flag. The two sets of added stars, which brought the total number of stars to 25, are clearly sewn by a different hand, but more importantly, are of a less tight, lower quality linen weave. This is solid evidence that when originally produced, the flag consisted of 19 stars, which were later updated. Note also how the linen, unlike cotton, has an almost pearl-like appearance under magnification.


Close up of an original star and its adjacent white stripe. Note the identical weave of the linen fabric. Also note the loose, irregular wool bunting, consistent with early 19th century wool fabric.

Silk is a natural protein fiber obtained most commonly from the cocoon of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm. One of the most luxurious and expensive of all fabrics, the use of silk in American flags is typically reserved for the finest quality flags, most often for military or official use. Several qualities of silk make it an exceptionally good fabric for use in flags. The material is light-weight, exceptionally strong, tightly woven and weathers well. Its shimmering appearance is beautiful and impressive. For military standards, silk allows for large flags that are light and which dry quickly. The fineness of the material allows for the application of painted decorations, as is often seen in the painted stars and decorative cantons of flags produced for wartime use, especially those of the American Civil War.

One unfortunate problem with antique silk flags is that large numbers of them, including many Civil War era battle standards, were made of "weighted silk". Sold for centuries by length, merchants shifted from selling silk by length to selling it by weight, beginning in the early 19th century (circa 1820-1830). In order to earn more money for their silk, merchants frequently soaked the silk in water laden with mineral salts. Once dried, the mineral salts remained in the silk fibers and added weight to the silk, thus bringing the merchant more money. Unfortunately, these mineral salts proved to be caustic and caused severe breakdown in the silk fibers over time. Many flags made of weighted silk are very brittle, often deteriorating under their own weight. Yet flags made of unweighted silk, some of which are decades older than later weighted silk flags, remain in a remarkable state of preservation.

Beyond the basic fabrics of wool, cotton, silk and linen most commonly used on antique flags, flags exist that are sometimes made of blended fabric such as wool-silk blends. Although certain weaves, such as bunting weaves for wool, are most common, homemade flags that are made from materials at hand sometimes use fabric intended for other purposes such as blankets, clothing, drapery or upholstery. These variations add charm and uniqueness to the flags. Flags with fabrics in printed patterns such as calico or stripes are also unusual and rarely encountered, thus adding to their appeal with collectors.


Little Lamb: A babe in white linen on white stone

Editor's note: This article by Jenedy Paige originally appeared on her blog, JenedyPaige.com. It has been shared here with the author's permission.

Last year, I began to feel that I should attempt a Nativity painting. This of course was a very daunting idea, but I figured the best place to start was with research. I began with Luke 2:7,

“And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger because there was no room for them in the inn.”

I also came upon an article of archeologist, Jeffrey R. Chadwick, and found it eye opening and inspiring. Jeffrey R. Chadwick has worked in Israel as a researcher and field archaeologist for over thirty years, specializing in the backgrounds of biblical narratives. He suggested that the manger would have most likely been carved out of white limestone, one of the most abundant natural resources in the Israelite region, and showed pictures of many similar mangers they have uncovered on archaeological digs. And while we like to think of the baby, “asleep on the hay”, he also states that this was also unlikely, as grass was available on the hills surrounding Judea year round. They really would have had no need to store hay, and the mangers were most likely used for water.

I also learned that while we often think of “swaddling bands” as scraps of fabric, showing the poverty of Mary and Joseph, they were actually a big part of Israelite culture. When a young woman was betrothed she immediately began embroidering swaddling bands, which were 5- to 6-inch-wide strips of linen that would be embroidered with symbols of the ancestry of the bride and groom. Thus the bands symbolized the coming together of the two families as one. They also symbolized the integrity of the woman, as she strove to make both sides of the embroidery match exactly, symbolizing to her soon to be husband that she was as good on the inside as she was on the outside. These bands were then wrapped around the hands of the couple at the wedding ceremony. So the bands the Savior was swaddled in may have included the lion of Judah and the stem of Jesse.

As I wrapped my head around these rather mind altering ideas, I realized that many of the concepts that we have of the Savior’s birth revolve around paintings of European artists from centuries ago. I’m sure they painted according to the best of their abilities and knowledge, but I also wondered why more modern painters had yet to illustrate these concepts. I felt up to the task and began sketching right away. I picked up limestone from a stone yard, I bought linen from the fabric store, and just in time one of my good friends had a baby boy, and oddly enough, his name was Luke. I put all these components together and created this painting.

As I’ve sketched and worked, my heart has been so full as I’ve uncovered this image. For when you take away the Hollywood drama, the traditions of centuries, and the wood and the hay, all you’re really left with is a babe in white linen on white stone. And my mind immediately went to the purpose of the Savior’s life: He was born to die. He came as the sacrificial lamb for all mankind so how fitting that He would begin his life on a stone altar of sorts, and be wrapped in white linen, like he would after His death. And of course He would be placed in a trough for water, for He would be Living Water, and would bring life to all. I also found myself weeping for the Father, and how it must have felt to see His Son begin life foreshadowing His death. My heart was so full of gratitude that He would send His Only Begotten to be the Savior for us all. That He would send His Son, the King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, to die so that we all might live. What good news, what comfort and joy, what a gift was given to us all. O come, let us adore Him.

Jenedy Paige decided to be an artist as a senior in High School, and learned to paint during her time at BYU-Idaho, where she graduated with a BFA in 2006. It was art's ability to communicate a message that persuaded her to pursue a career in it, and it's the thing that keeps driving her back to her easel. Her greatest masterpieces are her three sons and daughter.