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Njala sāga Modruvallabokā

Njala sāga Modruvallabokā


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Pajautājiet kādam viduslaiku vēsturniekam: Kas uzrakstīja Njāla sāgu?

Njáls sāga ir viena no garākajām no četrdesmit Islandes sāgām, kas sarakstītas laikā no 13. līdz 14. gadsimtam.

Daudzi islandieši var izsekot savu mantojumu sāgu varoņiem. Īslandiešu valodā vārds ‘saga ’ nozīmē gan ‘ vēsturi ’ un ‘story ’, gan Njālsa sāga ir dramatiska. Ir nāves un apdegumi, bads un atriebība, bet viens no intriģējošākajiem noslēpumiem ir Njala seksuālā orientācija.

Tāpēc mēs jautājām viduslaiku vēsturniekam Arngrímur Vídalín: "Kas rakstīja Njáls sāgu un bija Njáll gejs?"

Gandrīz neviens viduslaiku islandiešu teksts nav attiecināts uz konkrētu autoru. Sāgas ir balstītas uz gadsimtiem senu mutisku stāstīšanas tradīciju, kas tiek apkopota un pārstrādāta stāstījumā un, visbeidzot, gadsimtus vēlāk, pierakstīta. Njáls sāgas versiju, kas lielākajai daļai cilvēku ir pazīstama, rediģēja Einārs Ols. Sveinsons 1954. gadā. Viņa mērķis bija atjaunot zaudēto oriģinālo Njala sāgu, savācot to no dažādiem dažādu rokrakstu rediģējumiem.

Daudzi zinātnieki ir izvirzījuši argumentus par tās autorību, potenciālie autori ir Sæmundur the Wise, Snorri Sturluson un viņa brāļadēls Sturla Þórðarson. Tomēr neviens neapstrīdēja, ka to varēja rakstīt sieviete.

Njolla homoseksuālisma pieskaņu iedvesmo viņa sejas matu trūkums un ciešās saites ar Gunāru. Viduslaikos homoseksualitāte nebija zināma seksuālā orientācija, tāpēc Njalu nekad neapraksta kā geju. Bet cilvēki ir nodarbojušies ar homoseksuālu seksu katrā valstī, un Islande nav izņēmums.

Par laimi, uz šo jautājumu nav patiesas atbildes - tas noņemtu stāsta burvību. Mēs varam tuvoties sāgām ar savu domāšanas veidu un pieredzi, bez aizspriedumiem un aizspriedumiem. Tas ir tāpēc, ka mēs spējam atspoguļot sevi šajos tekstos, un tie nepārtraukti piedāvā jaunas un aizraujošas interpretācijas iespējas.


Njal 's sāga studiju ceļvedis

Njala sāga ir garākā un cienījamākā no četrdesmit Islandē rakstītajām sāgām starp trīspadsmito un četrpadsmito gadsimtu. Sāgas notikumi nāk no vairākiem dažādiem avotiem, tostarp mutvārdu stāstiem, Apdzīvoto vietu grāmata (detalizēts pārskats par visām tiesvedībām viduslaiku Islandē), Islandiešu grāmata (stāsts par kristietības izplatību Islandē) un citas sāgas. Sāgā ir iekļauts plašs dzejas dzejas klāsts starp lielākoties prozaiskajiem fragmentiem, daži no tiem ņemti tieši no vēstures avotiem.

Īslandiešu valodā vārds "sāga" nozīmē gan "vēsturi", gan "stāstu". Un, lai gan šis teksts piedāvā Islandes vēstures poētisko versiju, tas pilnībā izmanto arī dramatiskās formas priekšrocības. Tāpat kā Šekspīrs dažus gadsimtus vēlāk izmantoja vēsturiskas personas kā pamatu daudziem viņa varoņiem, arī šīs sāgas autors, kurš joprojām ir anonīms, paņēma īstus islandiešus un iekļāva viņus savā drāmā. Daudzi no viņiem parādās citās sāgās, bet daži no viņiem, piemēram, Gunnara brālis Kolskegs, īpaši nepiedalās citās sāgās. Tas varētu nozīmēt, ka autors apzināti izdomāja šo varoni drāmai vai ka citas dramatiskas notikumu interpretācijas neuzskatīja, ka Kolskegs ir stāsts. In Njala sāga, autore iepazīstina arī ar daudziem brāļiem un māsām, vecākiem un bērniem, kuriem sižetā nav nekādas nozīmes, parādot, ka šis autors jutās spiests rakstīt ģenealoģijās, tāpat kā daudzās citās sāgās. Protams, tas var padarīt lasīšanas pieredzi mūsdienu lasītājiem diezgan sarežģītu, jo ir tik daudz rakstzīmju un vietu, kur sekot līdzi. Bet mūsdienu lasītājiem šīs ģenealoģijas nodrošināja ceļu sāgai: daudzi islandieši spēj izsekot savai dzimtai līdz pat sāgas varoņiem. Šī sāga tika uzrakstīta pēc tam, kad Norvēģija atkārtoti pievienoja Islandi, tāpēc ģenealoģijas var uzskatīt arī par personiskās un nacionālās identitātes apliecinājumu. Būtu jāpaiet vēl septiņiem gadsimtiem pirms Islandes neatkarības atgūšanas, kas var palīdzēt izskaidrot ilgstošo pietāti, ko lasītāji turpina izjust sāgas dēļ.

Pirmajā ekspozīcijā var atpazīt sāgas par to, ka viņi demonstrē brutālu vardarbību un fizisku meistarību, taču bezbārdais titulvaronis nav karavīrs. Viņš tikai nēsā niecīgu cirvi ar īsu rokturi visā sāgā. Njala sāga godina inteliģenci, gudrību, izlēmību, mērķtiecību, gudru biznesa izjūtu, spēju dot un saņemt padomu, pieklājību un goda sajūtu. Tulkotājs Roberts Kuks saka: "Mūsu šaubu par sevi, identitātes krīžu un eksistenciālās nenoteiktības laikmetā ir atsvaidzinoši lasīt par stingru lēmumu pieņemšanu un mērķtiecīgu rīcību, ko veic vīrieši un sievietes ar pārliecību par sevi" (xv).

Kā citēt https://www.gradesaver.com/njals-saga MLA formātā

Njal & rsquos sāga Jautājumi un atbildes

Njal & rsquos sāga sadaļa Jautājumi un atbildes ir lielisks resurss, lai uzdotu jautājumus, rastu atbildes un apspriestu romānu.

Thorgunna epizodē imigrante no Hebridu salām ar savu grezno gultas veļu ir nokļuvusi lietus dušā, kas izrādās no asinīm. Pirms viņa iet uz savu gultu un nomirst, viņa brīdina, ka visa gultasveļa ir iznīcināta. Kad tā nav.

Konflikts starp šīm divām reliģijām rodas ātri un tiek atrisināts arī diezgan ātri, lai gan tā ietekme ir ilgstoša. Njal tiek uzskatīts par gudru varoni ilgi pirms jaunās reliģijas parādīšanās, tāpēc, kad viņš ir viens no pirmajiem, kurš to izvēlējās.

Pārveidoja Olafs Tryggvasons. Nosūtīja priesteri, lai evaņģelizētu islandiešus. Iepriekšējās misijas arī meklēja atgriešanos. Deviņdesmito gadu beigās reliģiskā spriedze m/w kristieši un pagāni sāka paātrināties dažās slepkavībās, kur bija reliģija.

Studiju ceļvedis Njal & rsquos sāgai

Njal 's Saga studiju ceļvedis satur biogrāfiju, literatūras esejas, viktorīnas jautājumus, galvenās tēmas, rakstzīmes un pilnu kopsavilkumu un analīzi.

Esejas Njal & rsquos sāgai

Njal 's Saga esejas ir akadēmiskas esejas citēšanai. Šos dokumentus galvenokārt rakstīja studenti, un tie sniedza kritisku Njalas sāgas analīzi.


Njal 's sāga Kopsavilkums un 95.-106. nodaļas analīze

95 - Šī nodaļa iepazīstina ar Flosiju Tordarsonu, Starkadas brāli, kurš ir precējies ar Sida zāles meitu Šteinvoru.

96 - Šī nodaļa iepazīstina ar Sida zāli, kuras brālim Toršteinam (jeb “platajam vēderam”) bija dēls Kol. Tas ir tas pats Kols, kuru Kari nogalināja Velsā.

97 - Njal vēlas, lai viņa audžudēls Hoskulds apprecētu Starkadas meitu Hildigunnu. Hoskulds tam piekrīt, sakot, ka ir priecīgs uzņemties kādu no Njalas vēlmēm. Hildiguna saka, ka viņa ar viņu neprecēsies, ja vien nekļūs par godi vai vietējo priekšnieku. Tomēr viņi nevar viņam atrast dievu, jo neviens nevēlas pārdot savu. Njal sniedz daudz pretrunīgu padomu tiem, kam ir tiesas prāvas šajā nomāktajā laikā. Njals savāc visus priekšniekus un izveido piekto tiesu, lai izskatītu neuzticības un apelācijas sūdzības, jo ceturtdaļtiesas pēdējā laikā nedod daudz laba problēmu risināšanā. Viņi tam izvēlēsies jaunus dievus. Hoskulds kļūst par godi un beidzot var apprecēties ar Hildigunnu. Viņš pārņem īpašumu Ossabaerā.

98 - Ļitings, vīrietis, kurš ir precējies ar Treinas māsu Šteinvoru, rīko lielas svinības un uzaicina Njalsonus, Sigfussonus un daudzus citus. Viņa brāļi ir nemiera cēlāji. Hoskulds Njalsons ir redzams lielāmies garām. Litings piedāvā viņu nomedīt, ja tā ir Hoskulda Treinsona vēlme, bet tā nav viņa vēlme. Gunnars Lambasons un Lambi Sigurdarsons tomēr ne tikai sarunājas: viņi bija kopā ar Treinu, kad viņš tika nogalināts, un vēlas asins atriebību, jo Hoskulda Njalsona brālis Skarphedins bija iesaistīts slepkavībā. Pēc tam, kad viņi tajā naktī nokļuva Hoskulda Njalsona slazdā, vīrieši nolaidās, lai nogrieztu viņam galvu, un galu galā viņš palika tik tikko dzīvs. Hoskuldas māte Hrodija nakts vidū ierodas pie Njalas un Bergthoras, lai lūgtu viņa palīdzību Hoskuldas dziedināšanā. Njal neredz viņam iespēju dzīvot, un ir pārsteigts, ka kādam tas bija. Tajā naktī viņš paliek kopā ar bijušo sievu Hrodniju.

99 - Skarphedins un viņa brāļi nolemj uzmākties Litingam. Skarphedins nekavējoties noņem Halgrimam kāju, un Litings pagrūž savu šķēpu pret Skarphedinu, ko bloķē tikai Helgi Njalssona vairogs. Skarphedins ar cirvi uzlauž Halkela mugurkaulu. Litings bēg, bet ne bez vairākām brūcēm, ko piegādāja Grims un Helgi. Litings stāsta Hoskuldam par notikušo, un ir skaidrs, ka Litings knapi turas pie dzīvības. Hoskulds piekrīt izlīgumam, kurā Lītings patur savu saimniecību, bet pārējā gadījumā viņš piekrīt Njala un viņa dēla noteikumiem. Njal saka, ka viņš ir ieinteresēts izlīgumā tikai tad, ja Linginga pārdzīvojušie brāļi tiks aizliegti ar kompensāciju, kas samaksāta par viņa audžudēlu Hoskuldu. Njal iesaka Litingam pārvietoties spēku dēļ, kas nav viņa kontrolē, taču viņš nevēlas uzlikt viņam šādā veidā, tāpēc tas atrodas ārpus apmetnes.

100 - Ērlu Hakonu nogalina viņa vergs Kārks, un Olafs Tryggvasons ieņem Norvēģijas valdnieka vietu. Kristietis Olafs pieprasa, lai arī Norvēģija, Šetlenda, Orkneja un Farēru salas pārietu viņa reliģijā. Njal ir viens no retajiem, kurš jauno ticību uzskata par labāku par veco ticību. Ir teikts, ka arī Njala "bieži vien šķīrās un murmināja pie sevis" (173). Vīrietis vārdā Thangbrand tiek nosūtīts uz Islandi, lai sludinātu ticību kopā ar lielisko Islandes karavīru Gudleifu. Hall of Sida aicina vīriešus palikt pie viņa, jo, šķiet, nav "[viņu] preču tirgus". (173) Tangbrands nākamajā rītā dzied misi eņģelim Miķelim. Sidas zāle aizraujas ar interesi par šo kristīgo figūru un tiek kristīta.

101 - Hols un Thangbrand pavasarī kļūst par misionāriem, nesot tikai krucifiksus. Viņi pievērš daudzus Halles radiniekus un pēc tam pāriet pie burvja Hedina, kuram bija samaksāts par misionāru nogalināšanu. Kad Thangbrands brauc uz Hofdabrekka, milzīga plaisa sadala zemi zem zirga kājām. Viņš lec no zirga un uzkāpj augšup aiz bedres. Viņš pateicas Dievam.

102 - Gudleifs vajā Hedinu Burvi un sit viņu ar šķēpu. Kad dzejnieks Veturlidi iebilst misionāriem, viņi nolemj viņu nogalināt. Par to tiek sastādīts dzejolis. Grimsnes slimnieks Torvalds pavēl Ulfam Uggasonam nogalināt arī misionārus, taču viņš atsakās. Rīkojums un atteikums ir arī panta formā. Tomēr, uzzinot par to, tiek plānotas slazdas pret misionāriem, un viņi paliek pie sava plāna pēc iespējas vairāk cilvēku pievērsties. Torvalds pats vada slazdu un viņam tiek nocirsta roka, kas noved pie viņa nāves. Kad Steinunn, dzejnieka Ref māte, tiekas ar Thangbrand, viņa saka, ka Tors izaicināja Kristu cīņai un viņš nepiedalīsies. Thangbrand atbild, ka "Thor būtu tikai putekļi un pelni, ja Dievs negribētu, lai viņš dzīvo." (177) Šteinūns stāsta, ka Thangbranda kuģis pagājušajā vasarā tika avarējis, jo Tors to vēlējās.

103 - Gests Oddleifsons, gudrs cilvēks ar otru redzi, rīko svētkus, lai sagaidītu misionārus. Jau ir vairāk nekā 200 pagānu, un sagaidāms, ka nedaudz iepriecinās Otrijs. Thangbrand saka, ka viņi sacentīsies starp ticībām, katrs svētot uguni un redzot, kuram no tiem mežonīgais ir gatavs iet cauri un no kura baidās. Ierodoties, Otrijs iet taisni cauri pagānu ugunij, mēģinot nojaukt kristīgo uguni, viņa zobens iestrēdzis zāles šķērssijā virs un Torvalda krucifikss liek viņam zaudēt saķeri ar zobenu. Thangbrand un viņa vīri nogalina Otrygg. Saimnieks Gests iesaka Thangbrandam atnest šo ticību Altingam, ja viņš patiešām vēlas, lai tā nostiprinās Islandē. Thangbrand uzskata, ka tā ir visgrūtāk veiksmīgā atgriešanās vieta, bet Gests viņam atgādina, ka "koks nekrīt pirmajā triecienā" (179).

104 - Hjalti Skeggjason ir aizliegts par ņirgāšanos par vecajiem dieviem, atrodoties Norvēģijā, atsauce uz viņa pantu 102. nodaļā. Ķēniņam Olafam tiek stāstīts par Thangbrand gandrīz nāves pieredzi, kad zem zirga atveras plaisa un viņš dusmojas uz islandiešiem par viņu nolādēšanu. . Viņš notiesā visus Islandes iedzīvotājus Norvēģijā un tikai pārdomā šo bargo spriedumu pēc Gizura un Hjalti apņemšanās izplatīt ticību Islandē. Hjalti uzzina, ka viņš ir aizliegts, tāpēc kāds ieņem viņa vietu.

105 - Pie lietas pagāni un kristieši paziņo, ka nav saistoši otras grupas likumiem. Law Rockā valda tik liels satraukums, ka "neviens nevarēja dzirdēt nevienu citu" (181). Torgeir, pagānu Godi no Ljosavatn, tiek lūgts pasludināt likumu. Viņš uzliek apmetni virs galvas un klusē visu dienu. Nākamajā dienā viņš pārtrauc savu klusēšanu un pasludina kristietību par viņu likuma pamatu. Tas ietver atteikšanos no "viltus elku pielūgšanas, bērnu atmaskošanas un zirga gaļas ēšanas" (181). Tomēr viņš piebilst, ja šīs darbības tiks praktizētas slepenībā, sods netiks piemērots. Dažus gadus vēlāk šis slepenais papildinājums tiek atmests. Lielākie kristiešu svētki un brīvdienas tiek iekļautas arī ikgadējā kalendārā. Pagāni jūtas nodoti, bet likums ir likums, jo viņi jau bija piekrituši Torgera lēmumam šajā jautājumā.

106 - Amundi Neredzīgais, Hoskulda Njalsona dēls, ierodas pie lietas trīs gadus pēc kristīgās pasludināšanas meklēt Litingu. Viņš lūdz kompensāciju par sava tēva nogalināšanu, bet Litings saka, ka jau ir piešķīris kompensāciju Njalsoniem. Amundi redzi sasniedz pietiekami ilgi, lai iebāztu cirvi Litinga galvā. Njal saka, ka Amundi prasība ir pamatota. Litinga radiniekiem tiek izmaksāta pusvērtīga kompensācija.

Analīze

Lasītājs varētu justies kā atteikties no nosaukumiem pēc šīs sadaļas. Tagad ir vairāki dažādi personāži ar vienādiem nosaukumiem, viņu individuālie ievadi šķiet nepareizi, un šķiet, ka katra varoņa nozīme samazinās. Tiek pieņemts, ka šī neparastā sarežģītība izriet no vēlmes saglabāt vēsturiski precīzu. Bet, kā mēs varam skaidri noteikt, ņemot vērā jaunos akadēmiskos atklājumus par kristietības un tiesību izplatības vēsturi Islandē, precizitātes slogs nešķiet tik liels, kā lasītājs varētu pieņemt, ņemot vērā iepriekš minētās problēmas.

Piektās tiesas izveide ir īpaši interesanta, jo tā parāda Njala ietekmi uz Islandi kopumā. Viņa juridiskie padomi ir tik ļoti cienīti, ka tad, kad viņa padoms vairs neatrisina juridiskas dilemmas, neviens viņu nevaino. Patiesībā, ņemot vērā Njala slepeno motivāciju nodibināt jaunus audžus savam audžudēlam Hoskuldam, lai viņš varētu apprecēties, mēs nevaram būt pārliecināti, ka juridiskie padomi nav piesārņoti. Iespējams, viņš apzināti sniedz sliktu padomu, lai varētu nostiprināt audžudēla laimi! Kaut arī Njal ir bijis morāls kompass sāgā, viņš arī dīvaini manipulē tiesvedībā, neuzticoties saviem skrupuliem, bet gan tam, vai viņam ir lūgts atrisināt problēmu vai nē. Lasītājs var būt nedaudz piedodošāks, ņemot vērā tādas problēmas kā cilvēka šķietamā nespēja pārvarēt nežēlīgi vardarbīgas konfrontācijas, lai atrisinātu problēmas. Likums ir Njala metode cilvēka rūdīšanai, taču viņš nevairās no tā izmantošanas savām personīgajām priekšrocībām. Varbūt sāgas morāle ir tāda, ka tiem, kuri nav zinoši likumā, jābūt piesardzīgiem pret to, ka viņus var viegli apmānīt, vai arī, lai iegūtu personisku ietekmi, ir obligāti jāiegūst zināšanas par likumu.

Lai gan mēs jau esam redzējuši dažus reliģiskas ietekmes gadījumus, šī sadaļa to pirmo reizi izvirza priekšplānā. 100–106. Nodaļa būtībā ir Islandes konversijas pārskats, kas ņemts tieši no Arija grāmata par islandiešiem un Kristni sāga. Lasītājs var saskatīt paralēles starp reliģiju šeit un sestajā sezonā Troņu spēles (šeit nav spoileru!). Tomēr atšķirībā no Bībeles vai citiem reliģiskiem tekstiem, Njala sāga piešķir ticību pagānu maģijai un tās taustāmajai ietekmei. Arguments ir mazāk evaņģēlisks nekā mūsdienu kristiešu vēstījumi, kuros citas reliģijas tiek pasludinātas par nepatiesām. Hedins Burvis spēj savākt plaisu zem Thangbrand un norīt savu zirgu caur saviem reliģiskajiem uzskatiem. Pārbaude starp abām reliģijām izrādās relatīva, nevis absolūta. Patiesībā ir vajadzīgs Thangbrand un viņa vīri, lai nojauktu berserkeru, pat ja viņiem ir palīdzība no krucifiksa un uguns. Kad Amundi atgūst redzi pietiekami ilgi, lai nogalinātu Litingu, arī par kristietību nav ne miņas. Galu galā šajā sāgā attiecības starp maģiju un kristietību nav viena pret vienu.


Likums

Sāga pievērš ļoti lielu uzmanību likuma detaļām, un Islandes augstākie juristi tiek uzskatīti par cienījamiem vīriešiem. Tomēr likums ir tiešā pretrunā ar cilvēka dabisko brutalitāti un vēlmi atriebties. Fakts, ka ikgadējā visu brīvo vīriešu pulcēšanās Islandē ir vērsta uz tiesvedību, dod cerību uz likuma nākotni Islandē, taču pat apelācijas tiesa nevar viņus glābt no iejaukšanās visaptverošā cīņā, kad maldināšana un tiesvedībā tiek ieviesta viltība, kas nav reta taktika viduslaiku (un, diemžēl, mūsdienu) tiesībās.


Kurš ’s kurš Islandes sāgos

Saskaņā ar Īslandes vadošo Njala sāgas ekspertu Eināru Ólafuru Sveinsonu, sāga tika uzrakstīta ne vēlāk kā 1280. gadā. Lai gan daudzi ir mēģinājuši atrast sāgas autoru un ir uzrakstītas daudzas grāmatas, kas atbalsta šo vai citu teoriju, autoru patiesā identitāte paliek noslēpums. Tomēr Njāla sāga ir kļuvusi par ikonu Īlandes kultūrā, par patiesu nacionālo dārgumu, kas atskan katrā salu dvēselē, vismaz sākot no papīra manuskriptu laikiem 17. gadsimtā un turpmāk. Sāgas stāstu laiks ir aptuveni no 10. gadsimta vidus līdz 11. gadsimta pirmajām desmitgadēm. Tas stāsta par diviem draugiem - Gunaru Hāmundarsonu un Njollu Þorgeirsonu, Gunars ir varonis un Njáll ir viņa mentors. Problēmas, ar kurām viņi saskaras, ir patiesi daudz un sarežģītas, taču lielāko daļu no tām Njál izdodas risināt ar savām augstākajām tiesību zināšanām. Gunāru beidzot uzvar viņa ienaidnieki, un pēc tam Njál ’s saimniecība tiek nodedzināta, un lielākā daļa viņa ģimenes mirst tur kopā ar viņu.

Jaunais stāsta varonis Kārijs Sölmundarsons ir tas, kurš izvairās no dedzināšanas un sāk atriebties par Njalu un viņa dēliem, kā arī viņa paša dēlu, kurš tika nogalināts ugunsgrēkā. Dedzinātāji tiek nogalināti pa vienam, un Kári īpaši meklē viņu vadītāju, priekšnieku Flosi Þórðarson. Pat lielā un pēdējā īru augstā karaļa Braiena Boru kauja kļūst par atriebības fonu.

Beidzot Kári un Flosi satiekas, bet, tāpat kā godājamie vīrieši, viņi samierinās. Kāri apprecas ar Flosi brāļameitu, un Flosi vēlāk pazūd jūrā.

Njālsa sāga, tāpat kā lielākā daļa sāgu, attiecas uz kara un miera, goda un negoda jēdzienu, terminu ievērošanu vai noteikumu pārkāpšanu. Njala sāgā likumu intrigas ir katra strīda priekšgalā. Tāpēc mēs redzam, kā sabiedrība lēnām mainījās no vardarbīgā strīdu risināšanas aspekta uz civilizētāku. Bet civilizētais veids neizslēdz vardarbību, kā mēs joprojām varam redzēt visapkārt.

Pateicoties daudzajiem Njáls sāgas slāņiem, tas lasītājam nepārtraukti sniedz kaut ko jaunu. Rakstzīmes ir spilgtas un noņemamas, ļoti cilvēcīgas, ļoti sarežģītas. Sāgu rakstīšanas stila dēļ, kas nekad nerāda jūs varoņu prātā, bet tikai to, ko viņi dara vai saka, tie kļūst ārkārtīgi reālistiski, tik ilgi, ka islandieši uzskatīja, ka viņi patiešām pastāv un ka sāga bija stāsts par lietām, kas notika patiesībā, tieši tā, kā stāstīts sāgā. Daudzi joprojām to dara. Bet Njāla sāga pirmām kārtām ir lielisks literatūras gabals, viens no lielākajiem Eiropā uzrakstītajiem viduslaikos, un tas liecina par autora zināšanām par tiesībām un Islandes vēsturi, no vienas puses, un, no otras puses. plašas zināšanas par Eiropas literatūru.

Šajā lapā es sākšu apkopot Njālsa sāgas varoņu sarakstu, lai izskaidrotu viņu savstarpējās attiecības un ņemtu aprakstus un citātus no sāgas.


Njala sāga Modruvallabokā - Vēsture

Klontarfa kauja islandiešu literatūrā

Aptuveni 170 gadus pēc Kogads Gēdels un Gallaiba, Clontarf kauja parādās citā viduslaiku tekstā, islandiešu literārajā darbā ar nosaukumu Brennu Njāla sāga (turpmāk tekstā - Njāla sāga). Šis darbs tika uzrakstīts c.1250-1280. Šī darba autors nav zināms, taču zinātnieki ir galīgi noteikuši, ka tas radīts Islandē. Gadā aprakstītie notikumi Njāla sāga domājams, notika aptuveni 200–300 gadus pirms teksta sastādīšanas, un lielākā daļa notika laikā c.960-1020.

Galvenais sižets attiecas uz jautājumiem, kas saistīti ar asiņošanu, godprātīgu slepkavību un goda kodu viduslaiku Islandē. Sāgas divi galvenie varoņi - Njál un Gunnar - abi piedzīvo briesmīgus un savlaicīgus galus, jo nebeidzams naidu un atriebības cikls, kuru galvenokārt rosināja un uzturēja viņu sievas. Galu galā Gunāru vardarbīgi sakauj viņa ienaidnieki, un Njālu piemeklē tikpat katastrofāls liktenis.

Vai tu zināji? Veco skandināvu nosaukums Njāla sāga, Brennu Njál, tulko kā "Stāsts par sadedzināto Njalu", jo Njāls un viņa ģimene savās mājās tiek sadedzināti līdz nāvei

Mīts un vēsture

Njāla sāga, kā Cogadh, ir literāra rakstura, taču, tāpat kā iepriekšējais teksts, tā stāstījums attiecas uz notikumiem un cilvēkiem ar zināmu vai ticamu vēsturisku patiesumu. Zinātnieki ir mēģinājuši un reizēm guvuši panākumus, apstiprinot dažu sāgas notikumu realitāti. Piemēram, izrakumos par vietu, ko sauc par Bergthorshvol, Njál un viņa ģimenes iespējamo mājvietu, parādās dedzināšanas pazīmes, un tas dažiem zinātniekiem apstiprina patiesību Njāla sāga ņemot vērā ģimenes bojāeju.

"Clontarf epizode" Njál sāgā

Braiens Boru, Gormleits, Sitriks un citi šajā tekstā parādās tā, kā zinātnieki nosaukuši par “Klontarfa epizodi”. Pasākumu sērija nedaudz atšķiras no Cogadh.

Piemēram, Sitriks ir galvenais pretējs spēks Braienam Boru, pretēji Māel Mórda.

Turklāt Gormlaita attēlojums ir daudz pamanāmāks un neapšaubāmi negatīvs. Tomēr tas labi saskan ar pārējiem sāgas sieviešu varoņiem, kuri galvenokārt tiek attēloti kā vardarbības ierosinātāji Njāla un Gunāra nesaskaņās. Sieviešu kūdītāju loma ir izplatīta sieviešu literārā loma plašākā sennorvēģu sāgu tradīcijā. Clontarf kontā, kas satur Njāla sāga, Vikings vārdā Brođir bija atbildīgs par Braiena nāvi.

Tagad Brodīrs redzēja, ka ķēniņa Braiena vīri vajā lidotājus, un
ka pie vairogburgas bija maz vīriešu.

Tad viņš metās ārā no meža un izlauzās caur vairogburgu,
un ķērās pie ķēniņa.

Zēns Takts metās pretī rokai, un trieka to novilka
un ķēniņa galva arī, bet ķēniņa asinis nāca uz zēna
celms, un celms ar to tika dziedināts uz vietas.

Tad Brodirs skaļā balsī iesaucās: „Tagad lai cilvēks pasaka cilvēkam
ka Brodīrs nocirta Braienu. "

Džordžs Vēbs Dasents, Njala sāga, lpp. 326-327.

Teodors M. Andersons, “Islandes karalis”. Speculum, Sēj. 74, Nr. 4 (1999. gada 1. oktobris), 923.-934.

Zoja Borovska, “Nekad publiski: sievietes un izrādes vecajā norvēģu literatūrā” Amerikāņu folkloras žurnāls, Sēj. 112, Nr. 443 (1999. gada 1. janvāris), 6.-39.

Aleksandrs Bugs, "Islandes sāgas izcelsme un ticamība" Amerikas vēsturiskais apskats, Sēj. 14 Nr. 2 (1909. gada 1. janvāris), 249.-261.

Roberts Kuks, ievads. un trans. Njala sāga (Londona, 2001).

Larss Lēnrots, Njala sāga: kritisks ievads (Berkley, 1976).

Magnus Magnusson un Hermann Palsson, ievads. un tul., Njala sāga (Harmondstown, 1960).

Viljams Īans Millers, Asins ņemšana un miera veidošana: naids, likums un sabiedrība Saga Islandē (Čikāga, 1990).

Harold Mytum, "Vikingi un Īrija: etniskā piederība, identitāte un kultūras izmaiņas" In Kontakts, nepārtrauktība un sabrukums: Ziemeļatlantijas kolonizācija, rediģējis Džeimss H. Barets (Turnhout, 2003), 113.-37.

Donnchadh Ó Corráin, "Vikingu Īrija: pēcdomas" In Īrija un Skandināvija agrīnajā vikingu laikmetā, rediģēja Hovards B Klārks, Maira Nī Monaona un Ragnāls O’Floins (Dublina, 1998), 421. – 452.


Njal 's sāga 46.-81. Nodaļas kopsavilkums un analīze

46 - Gizurs Baltais, lielais šifants, un Gīrs Godi atbalsta viens otru visos jautājumos. Morda Valgardsona tēvs ir ārzemēs, un viņa māte Unna ir mirusi. Kā tika paredzēts, Mords rīkosies pret Gunāru.

47 - Vīrietis vārdā Otkels ir nodrošināts ar īpašumiem, un viņam ir dēls vārdā Torgers, kurš ir jauns, bet parāda solījumu. Viņa draugs Skammkels ir ļauns un nepatiess. Otkela brālis Hallkeļs savā īpašumā atved īru vergu Melkolfu, bet viņš izrādās slikts strādnieks. Viņi vēlu piedzīvo badu, un Gunars ir ļoti laipni piešķīris resursus tiem, kas cieš. Gunāra krājumi beidzas viņa laipnības dēļ, un, kad viņš vēršas pie Okela, lai iegādātos vairāk siena, viņš tiek noraidīts pilnībā. Skammkels ir ieteicis Otkelam to darīt, jo viņiem nepatīk Sigfussons. Tā vietā Gunārs maksā par vergu Melkolfu. Kad Gunars atgriežas, Njals jau ir dzirdējis ziņas un proaktīvi atnesis viņam papildu sienu un ēdienu.

48 - Halidžers liek jaunajam vergam nozagt pārtiku no Okela un aizdedzināt viņa glabātuvi. Otkel un visi pārējie brīvie Islandes vīri atrodas Althingā, un visi dzīvnieki pazina Melkolfu, tāpēc plāns iet bez trauksmes. Skrienot atpakaļ gar Rangas upi, viņam jālabo salauztais kurpju šņores un tur aizmirstas nazis un josta. Viņš ir pārāk nervozs, lai atgrieztos un to satvertu. Althingā Otkel saka, ka ugunsgrēku izraisīja virtuve, kas bija pārāk tuvu noliktavas nojumei. Gunārs iepļaukā Haljērdu, kad pēc Altinga mēģina pasniegt viņam sieru un sviestu, zinot, ka tās ir zagtas preces.

49 - Skammkels atrod nazi un kopā ar Otkelu apstiprina, ka tas ir Melkolfa. Viņi dodas pie Morda Valgardsona, kurš saka, ka viņam par cenu ir noslēpumi par Gunnara mājsaimniecību. Par trīs uncēm sudraba viņš saka, ka nosūtīs sievietes uz māju ar dāvanām mājsaimniecēm un ka pretī sievietēm tiks uzdāvināta lieta, no kuras Halgerds visvairāk vēlas atbrīvoties: no nozagtajām precēm. Patiešām, sievietes atgriežas ar sieru, ko Haljērds bija mēģinājis pasniegt Gunnaram. Gunars dodas pie Okela un atzīst, ka zina šī nozieguma avotu. Viņš piedāvā saviem kaimiņiem pieņemt spriedumu, bet Otkels atsakās, pamatojoties uz to, ka viņi ir Gunnara draugi. Gunars piedāvā maksāt dubultu vērtību, bet Skammkela nevēlas, lai Otkels atļautu pašvērtēt. Tā vietā viņi meklē Gizura Baltā un Geira Godi spriedumu. Skammkels piedāvā viņus redzēt viņa vietā, un Otkels pieņem. Hokebjorns, Okela gudrais brālis, uzskata šo lēmumu par izsitumiem, jo ​​Skamkels ir viens no sliktākajiem meļiem valstī un viņš objektīvi neizpaudīs Gizura un Geira padomus. Viņi spekulē par Gunnara gatavību šajā jautājumā ņemt asinis.

50 - Skammkels stāsta Gizuram un Geiram, ka viņš un Otkels vēlas, lai viņiem būtu tas gods lemt par savu gaitu, bet viņi redz, ka Skammkela ir ļauns cilvēks. Patiešām, viņš turpina savu ļaunumu, sakot Okelam, ka Gizurs un Gīrs ieteica viņam vispār neizlīgt - tā vietā nogādāt uzvalku Althingā. Halbjorns zina, ka tas ir meli. Otkel un Skammkel ierodas Gunnara mājās un izsauc viņu uz tiesu. Kā parasti, Gunnars uzliek par pienākumu, taču viņš atzīmē, ka tas "viņiem nesniegs godu". (87)

51 - Althingā Njal pavēl Gunnaram konsultēties ar Hrutu par to, kā rīkoties. Hruts iesaka izaicināt Gizuru uz dueli, ja viņš noraidītu pašvērtējuma piedāvājumu. Gunara brālis Kolskegs var arī duelēt Geiru. Visbeidzot, Gizuram tiek pastāstīts par Skamkela meliem, un viņš tūlīt piedāvā piedāvāt Gunnaram pašvērtējumu. Tikmēr Skammkels guļ slims savā teltī un daudz par viņu tenko. Kad Gizurs un Gunars satiekas, Gunars aiz lepnuma gandrīz noraida pašvērtējumu, bet Njal pārliecina viņu to pieņemt. Gunāra apmetne atdos Melkolfu (jo viņam netika stāstīts par viņa ļaunumu), un šī verga zaudēšanas vietā viņš piešķirs sev ēdiena un šķūņa vērtību. Tādējādi norēķinos nekas netiek maksāts, tomēr tas ir vienāds izlīgums. Gizurs cenšas panākt, lai Gunārs draudzējas ar Otkelu, taču viņš saka, ka tas nekad nenotiks.

52 - Otkela draugs Runolfs vēlas, lai Otkels apmeklē, lai viņš varētu pateikties viņam par vērša dāvanu pirms kāda laika. Otkels saka, ka nāks. Vīrietis vārdā Audolfs šobrīd dzīvo kopā ar Otkelu.

53 - Otkels beidzot brauc pie Runolfa, atvedot divus zirgus, kas tiek uzskatīti par labākajiem Islandē. Viņi ir ļoti satraukti un sacenšas viens ar otru. Otkels iet ātrāk, nekā bija iecerējis, un, izraudzījies, viņš nejauši uzskrien pa taku Gunnaram un ierauj ausī lielu blīkšķi. Gunars brīdina Otkelu, ka nākamreiz, kad viņš viņu ieraudzīs, viņa aļberda būs kopā ar viņu. Skammkels viņu ņirgājas, un viņi brauc prom. Kolskegs par šo incidentu uzzina daudz vēlāk un saka, ka Gunnaram par to jāziņo, baidoties no liecinieku izzušanas laika gaitā. Runolfs domā, ka viņam vajadzētu braukt mājās kopā ar viņiem, baidoties no viņu krustošanās ar Gunāru, bet Otkels atsakās. Runolfs saka, ka šī būs pēdējā reize, kad viņi viens otru redz.

54 - Gans ātri brauc pie Gunāra, lai pastāstītu viņam par turpmākajām Skammkela tenkām: ka Gunars raudāja, kad Otkels viņu sagrieza. Viņš saka, ka ir redzējis vīriešus, kas šķērso upi tālāk, un viņi varētu viņus noķert, taču Gunars brīdina: „Lai mūs nepārvar viņu vārdi” (91). Gunārs tajā naktī izņem halberu, un tas skaļi zvana. Viņš to iespiež zemē un velvējas uz sava zirga. Neviens vēl nav redzējis Gunāru tik dusmīgu kā tagad. Gudrais brālis Halbjorns ir pirmais, kurš uzbrūk Gunnaram, kaut arī viņš nožēlo, ka uzņemas atbildību par Oķeli. Gunārs negribīgi nogriež Halbjorna roku plaukstā. Šobrīd Skammkels ar savu lielo cirvi skrien viņam pretī. Gunars mierīgi izceļ cirvi no rokas un izgrūž halberdu caur Skammkelu, paceldams visu ķermeni uz tā vārpstas. Viņš sūta Skammkelu uz galvas. Audolfs met šķēpu Gunnaram, bet Gunnars to noķer gaisā un izmet atpakaļ taisni caur Audolfu un viņa vairogu. Gunars pārlec pāri Otkela triecienam un šķēpa viņu caur zarnām. Kolskegg nāk pēdējais, lai palīdzētu Gunnaram. Kopumā viņi nogalina astoņus vīriešus. Kāda lieciniece skrien, lai pastāstītu Mordam, un viņš saka, ka viņam tas varētu rūpēties mazāk, lai gan upuri ir viņa radinieki.

55 - Njals sniedz Gunnaram padomu, kā virzīties uz priekšu slepkavību karjerā: "Nekad nenogalini vairāk nekā vienu reizi vienas asinslīnijas ietvaros un nekad nepārkāp nevienu izlīgumu, ko labie vīrieši noslēdz starp tevi un citiem" (94). Gunnar is curious if the prescient Njal, who seems to be able to tell the future, knows his own death. He does, and describes it as "something people will least expect" (94). Gizur and Geir draw lots to see which of them has to bring about the suit, because neither of them wants to do so. Geir draws the short straw and they both proceed to dig up the bodies, name witnesses, and make a summons.

56 - Skafti and his father Thorodd are great experts in the law and followers of Gizur. They stand as lawyers with Geir at Law Rock to announce the suits against Gunnar and Kolskegg. Gunnar responds to the testimony with his own, which invalidates the whole proceeding. He claimed Otkel as an outlaw the moment he sliced his head with his spur, so no compensation can be had for his death. Furthermore, Gunnar announces that Geir himself should be made a lesser outlaw, forcing him to live in exile for three years, because he brought up the case of a man who was killed without proper claims to the case. Njal explains to Gunnar that Geir's argument is strong and he should not oppose with such fortitude, because he is guilty of murdering these men. Njal also threatens Geir with full outlawry and bids them both to settle these cases. Gizur thinks that Gunnar has too many allies and it would be unwise to shirk a settlement if possible. Otkel is not compensated because of the spur wound he delivered Skammkel is not compensated and the other men are given reasonable compensations based on their individual worths. Gunnar leaves more honorable, having secured Geir and Gizur's pledges of peace.

57 - This chapter introduces Starkad and Hallbera, whose sons, Thorgeir, Bork, and Thorkel, are violent and mean-spirited. Their sister is Hildigunn the Healer.

58 - This chapter introduces Egil, whose sons, Kol, Ottar, and Hauk, are also trouble-makers. Their sister Gudrun Night-sun is very well-mannered, however. The men leave Norway to Iceland for the first time and look around for somebody's horse to fight their own, believing that they have the strongest horse in the realm. Hildigunn says that Gunnar's horse is better. The men respond boastfully, although their father reminds them that Gunnar's good luck is unflappable. Gunnar agrees to the fight on the condition that he never be shamed by these men and that the fight should be for the entertainment of others. Njal says that many men will die as a result of this fight and that this will only provide further hostility within the Norwegian men's family down the line.

59 - Hoskuld Dala-Koll dies. Thorgerd and Thrain have a child whom they name Hoskuld, based on Hallgerd's recommendation. At the horse fight, Skarphedin wants to prod Gunnar's horse so they will have control of its emotion, but Gunnar doesn't want this. As is custom, Gunnar stands on the sideline with a stick to provoke the horses if need be, but it is not needed. When the Norwegian men push their horse, Gunnar pushes back. His horse runs down the other one on top of the men, and they spring up to attack Gunnar. He tosses Kol Egilsson aside, knocking him unconscious. Thorgeir beats Gunnar's horse's eye out before Gunnar can knock him unconscious as well. Gunnar orders Kolskegg to kill his own eyeless horse. Thorgeir tries to rush at Gunnar with his weapon, but a large crowd holds him back. Njal tries to give an offering of peace, but Thorgeir rejects it. Gunnar stands up calmly and the crowd is overcome with peace.

60 - Asgrim, a great lawyer, brings a case forward at the Althing only to discover that he has not brought enough witnesses to press an inheritance lawsuit. Gunnar stands up for Asgrim, offering to duel the defendant, Ulf Uggason. Ulf pays the fine instead. Asgrim says he will always be on Gunnar's side of the law. When Gunnar is invited to both Asgrim's and Olaf's homes in the next season, Njal warns him to always travel in large numbers and to be heavily armed. Gunnar doesn't follow this advice.

61 - Gunnar, Kolskegg, and Jort ride fully armored to Asgrim's with their best weapons. Sigurd Swine-head, a neighbor, spies on Gunnar during his time at Asgrim's and he tells Starkad when he is getting ready to leave. These men are planning an ambush of thirty men against the three of them. Thorgeir promises to bring back evidence of Gunnar's death. Hildigunn the Healer does not think they will succeed. Through taunts, the men gain a few Norwegian followers including Thorir, but they are all aware that is will be their death.

62 - Gunnar becomes very sleepy near the Thjorsa river and has a dream. Kolskegg makes sure that he isn't woken. Gunnar dreams that many wolves ambushed him twice in a row, forcing him to kill almost every one of them, but he could not help his third brother Hjort from being ripped open, his heart in the mouth of a wolf. Gunnar slices that wolf in two but it does not save Hjort's life. He recommends that Hjort go back to Asgrim's home, but he refuses, knowing full well that he will die as a result of this decision to stay by Gunnar's side. They continue on to the spot on the river where his dream had taken place.

63 - Swine-head is the first to be killed: Gunnar shoots an arrow through his shield, into his eye, and out the back of his neck. Kolskegg throws a heavy stone and it breaks another man's skull. Starkad wisely assesses that Gunnar and his team are too skilled with long-distance weapons, and they must charge if they want to stand a chance. Thorgeir says he vowed to bring Hildigunn Gunnar's head, but Gunnar says he must get closer to do so. Gunnar fends the men off even as they charge, flinging their weapons out of their hands with each blow. Thorkel's head goes flying with another strike. Kol wants to fight Kolskegg very badly. He thrusts his spear through Kolskegg's thigh, but Kolskegg quickly takes off Kol's leg with his short sword, which kills him. Gunnar conducts another signature stab and toss with his halberd, this time on Egil. Starkad eggs Thorir on, who was reluctant to come in the first place, knowing that it would be his death. He attacks Hjort in the chest and kills him at once. As predicted, Gunnar slices Thorir in two at the waist directly thereafter. Gunnar and Kolskegg continue to dominate the battle, separating heads and limbs from bodies one after the other. As Starkad flees, Gunnar chases them down to give them wounds. He says that it will be difficult for them to tell good stories about the battle without some blood to show. Gunnar buries Hjort at his home and many people mourn this loss. Hildigunn reprimands Starkad for not following her original advice to stay on good terms with Gunnar.

64 - Gunnar asks Njal what to do regarding all these killings. Njal thinks for a while and comes up with a plan: he has two cases to prosecute (Thorgeir impregnating his kinswoman and the Starkadarssons cutting wood on the edge of his property), but he will give the cases to Gunnar, which will put him in a better position to claim the dead men as outlaws at the time of their killing. This should diminish their compensations to zero in a settlement. He goes into further detail about what to do in the case of objections.

65 -Thorgeir comes to Valgard the Grey and Mord to ask for their help, thinking it ridiculous for Gunnar to have claimed all those men outlaws. Valgard is reluctant to help because he knows that this was not the end of Njal's advice to Gunnar and that it may get nastier. Nevertheless, they help Valgard for a high sum. Mord is to marry Thorkatla, daughter of Gizur the White, and they all ride off to make this happen. When Gunnar finds out, he consults with Njal once more. Njal says that Gunnar must bring about a suit against the late Kol for killing Hjort then he should summon Thorgeir on a charge of seduction as well.

66 - Gunnar and Njal arrive at the Thing with a massive group and join up with Geir and Gizur. Mord questions Gunnar's ability to pursue any cases at Law Rock because of his outrageous murders, thinking him better suited to being an outlaw. Njal says that he has all the legal rights of any other man, citing his gift of full compensation to his plaintiffs last autumn. Njal states furthermore that because Gunnar's enemies had intent to kill him, there is no legal redress for his self-defense: those attackers were outlaws. A man named Hjalti comes forward and offers that Gunnar let the good men present come to a settlement on these issues. Gunnar agrees under the condition that Hjalti himself will never be against Gunnar going forth. Many compensations are cancelled out, but the remaining ones are weighted at half-compensation (100 ounces of silver). Njal helps Gunnar pay with money he had on loan to Starkad. Gunnar comes away as the most honorable man in the South Quarter.

67 - Thorgeir Otkelsson grows up to be an honest and worthy man, despite his father's ills. But Thorgeir Starkadarson meanwhile is displeased with the result of the lawsuits. He consults Mord, who suggests a number of ways in which Gunnar can be seen to have broken settlements. One settlement involves Thorgier Otkelsson and a plot of land. Mord knows that Njal has predicted Gunnar's downfall if he slays two members of the same bloodline, so if Mord can get Gunnar to slay Thorgeir Otkelsson, it should also lead to Gunnar's death.

68 - Thorgeir Starkadarson meets with Thorgeir Otkelsson to flatter him and give him gifts. He gives him a spear inlaid with gold and rides home. A suit about land ownership involving Gunnar is settled at the Thing. Much time passes therafter. The Thorgeirs grow even closer. Gunnar knows of their malevolence for him, and when he sends off all his workers to make hay at Eyjar, Thorgeir Starkadarson finally convinces Thorgeir Otkelsson to attack Gunnar with him. Otkelsson is wise enough to be reluctant, but not wise enough to say no.

69 - When the Thorgeirs come to Gunnar's house, they hide out in the woods before "heaviness came over them and they could do nothing but sleep" (115). Off at Eyjar, some sheep get away and Skarphedin and Thorhild Njalsson go out to find them. They come back without the sheep but with news of the twenty-four men sleeping in the woods by Gunnar's house. Njal says he just had a dream about these men's spirit animals, but that they were frenzied and had no plan. Njal tells Skarphedin and Thorhild to let Gunnar know of the circumstances and to send for more men meanwhile, Njal will scare the men away. He does so by confronting them and exaggerating the forces that Gunnar has waiting for them.

70 - Njal is asked to arbitrate a settlement about this encounter. Mord rebukes the Thorgeirs for asking for Njal's help. Njal makes a famous statement at Law Rock during the proceeding: "with law our land shall rise, but it will perish with lawlessness" (117). The case is settled with all of the conspiring men paying 100 ounces of silver and the Thorgeirs paying 200 each. Olaf Peacock hosts Gunnar at his home after the Althing and gives him three gifts: a gold ring, a cloak which the king of Iceland once owned, and an Irish dog as a companion. Olaf says the dog will bark at all enemies, but never at a friend.

71 - The Thorgeirs go back to Mord to come up with another plan to get at Gunnar. He says that Otkelsson should seduce another of Gunnar's kinswomen and they will plan an attack on Gunnar after rumors are spread about Gunnar's malevolence toward them for this seduction. They must attack Gunnar away from his home now, because his dog is wary of intruders. Finally, the moment arises and they bring thirteen men down to the Ranga river to ambush Gunnar once again.

72 - "[A] great deal of blood appeared on the halberd" (119) at the beginning of Chapter 72, and Kolskegg is perplexed by it. Gunnar says it foreshadows a great battle. They come across the men and quickly take out their bows, killing a few right away. But more men follow them, and a great battle begins. Gunnar breaks through a man's shield, piercing him with his halberd, while another man has his legs cut off by Kolskegg just before he can attack Gunnar from behind. This man falls into the river and drowns. Thorgeir Starkadarson taunts Thorgeir Otkelsson, saying that it almost seems like he has no father to avenge. Otkelsson rushes Gunnar and manages to pierce his arm, but Gunnar quickly breaks his spear in two. He kills another man and sees Otkelsson coming at him again with a sword. Gunnar uses his signature move on him: he thrusts the halberd through him, picks him up with it, and tosses his body far into the river. The body floats down to a rock downriver and is henceforth called Thorgeir's Ford after Thorgeir Otkelsson. The ambushers retreat. Kolskegg wants to follow them, but Gunnar says it will certainly break the bank to have to pay for so many dead men, not to mention the ones they've already killed today. Rannveig, Gunnar's mother, says that bad will come of these killings, even though Hallgerd is very pleased with them.

73 - Njal tells Gunnar that he has now broken one of the guiding principles for a long life: he has killed two men in the same bloodline. Njal will represent his cause at the Thing. At Law Rock Gizur proposes giving Gunnar full outlawry as punishment for his crime in killing Thorgeir Otkelsson. His property should be split up among the men and he should not be fed on his way out of the country.

74 - Njal responds to this proposition by asking all the witnesses whether the Thorgeirs had planned the ambush with the intention of killing Gunnar. Naturally, they all declare that this was true. The case is settled monetarily, but part of the settlement also requires Gunnar to leave under lesser outlawry for three years. If he is caught still in the country, he may be killed with impunity by relatives of the slain. Gunnar gives no indication that he finds this settlement unfair, and he pays the dues. Njal says that this trip abroad will bring him even more honor than the last one and he will live to become an old man, but if he should break the settlement, he will be killed. Rannveig is relieved that Gunnar's enemies will have to pick on somebody else for a while when he is gone.

75 - Thrain Sigfusson and the Njalssons have separate plans to go abroad at the same time as Gunnar. Gunnar and Kolskegg get Gunnar ready to go, but when his horse slips and he is ejected from the saddle, he has a lapse in judgment. He looks back at Hlidarendi, his farm, and thinks it has never been lovelier. He decides to stay against Kolskegg and Njal's wishes. Kolskegg pleads with him to go, but Gunnar is settled in his decision. Kolskegg says he will never return to Iceland because he will be sure to hear the report of Gunnar's death if he does. Gizur and Geir declare Gunnar a full outlaw, meaning that anybody can kill him without redress. Njal knows that after Gunnar's death, the antagonism will be directed at his sons he advises Gunnar of this so that he might take them on right away. Gunnar declines. He asks that Njal look after his son Hogni and pay no attention to his other son, Grani, who acts like his mother. Gunnar is safe for the time being.

76 - Mord conspires to take Gunnar by surprise with another ambush by kidnapping the neighbor farmer, Thorkel, as well as the dog, Sam. They make Thorkel get the dog, so as to draw less suspicion. This does not work because the dog senses suspicion and bites Thorkel in the groin. Onund kills the dog with an axe to the head, but it lets out a loud howl "that was like none they had heard before" before dying (126).

77 - Gunnar wakes in the house and says that his death will be like the death of his dog, whom he calls his foster-child. He sleeps in a loft above the hall together with Hallgerd and his mother. Thorgrim is sent to the hall to see if Gunnar is at home. Gunnar sees his red cloak and stabs at it with the halberd from the darkness. Thorgrim reports that he is not sure if Gunnar is home, but his halberd is. Then he falls down dead. Gunnar shoots arrows at the ambushers, exhausting them into taking a rest. This happens three times, but they just cannot compete with his wall of arrows. Gunnar even takes one of the enemies' arrows to use against them in a taunt. Gizur takes the taunt as a call to charge. Mord wants to burn down the hall, but Gizur says that that would be far too dishonorable. Instead, they cut at the ropes that hold the house up. In this way, they manage to take the whole roof off the hall. Thorbrand Thorleiksson rushes at Gunnar and is able to cut the string on his bow before getting impaled by the halberd. Once more, Mord suggests burning the hall. Gizur rejects this vehemently once again. Gunnar kills Thorbrand's brother by throwing him from the roof scaffolding with the halberd.

In the seminal climactic moment, Gunnar asks Hallgerd for a lock of her hair so that he may restring his bow. He knows he can hold them off so long as he keeps them at a distance. She asks how important this is, and he says his life depends on it. She responds with the harrowing: "Then I'll recall. the slap you gave me, and I don't care whether you hold out for a long or a short time" (128). Gunnar defends himself well and goes on fighting for a long time until he collapses from weariness. At last, Gunnar is killed. Thorkel Elfaraskald writes a poem about Gunnar's brave defense.

Gizur asks Rannveig for land to bury the dead men in. She says that she would have liked to give them more land in the case that they all died. Gizur says she has many reasons to say this, and she is thankful for the land.

78 - Njal is distressed over the death of his friend, as are the Sigfussons. No legal redress is possible because Gunnar was an outlaw at the time of his death. Gunnar is buried sitting up. Rannveig says the halberd will go to whoever can avenge his death, but nobody takes it. She is so angry with Hallgerd that she almost kills her. Hallgerd flees with her son Grani. Hogni takes over Hlidarendi, the estate that drove Gunnar home when he should have left. One day a shepherd and servant hear Gunnar reciting verses in the mound in a joyful mood. They tell Rannveig about this, and she says to tell Njal. They repeat the verse three times to him. Njal sends Skarphedin to stay at Hlidarendi to make sure this is true. Skarphedin becomes good friends with Hogni one night when they are out by Gunnar's mound, it seems that Gunnar has turned around to look at the moon, and four lights start to burn in the mound without shadows. The apparition of Gunnar looks happy as it recites a poem. Skarphedin says that he has been waiting for Hogni to witness this because otherwise, he would never believe it. Hogni says that he would have believed Njal, because it is said he never lies. Skarphedin promises to help Hogni in any endeavor thereafter.

79 - Hogni and Skarphedin sneak out at night with the halberd, but it makes its ringing sound. Rannveig recognizes the sound and tells Hogni that he cannot bring the halberd to Gunnar until he avenges him with it, citing the sound that announces death. Two ravens follow the men their whole way to meet Oddi and his sons, all of whom they kill very quickly. Since Oddi had been herding sheep, they do well by imitating sheep as they continue on. They encounter Starkad and Thorgeir, both of whom try to run away however, they cannot get away quick enough and are quickly killed. When they see Hof in a field, he offers peace and full reconciliation. Hogni had not intended to give self-judgment, but he is convinced otherwise: Hof lives.

80 - Njal presses the case of the slaying of Starkad and Thorgeir, but Mord owes many people money and ends up paying the compensation and reconciling. Geir the Godi and Hogni also complete a settlement whereby they make peace and Geir stays at Hlidarendi for the rest of his life. He is now out of the saga. Njal arranges a marriage between Hogni and the daughter of Veturlidi the Poet. It is said that Hogni keeps up his friendship with Njal Hogni is now out of the saga.

81 - Kolskegg, who left before Gunnar's death, travels to Norway and then Denmark, where he enters the service of King Svein Fork-beard and receives great honor. Kolskegg has a dream one night that a man made of gleaming light offers to find him a wife and make him a knight. A wise man tells him that he is to become "God's knight" in the southern lands (133). Kolskegg is baptized and heads to Constantinople where he spends the rest of his days in the Varangian guard. He is now out of the saga.

Analysis

There is a recurring line in this section that one might not expect: "He stayed at home for a while, and all was quiet" (118). While this section is densely packed with taunts, plots, and brutal killings, it takes place over a long period of time, which can be difficult to remember or even fathom. It seems that the base unit of time in the saga is not a day or even a week, but rather a whole season. This framing helps to explain why in some cases prominent characters can be 'out of the saga' long before dying or, in other cases, they are out of the saga because they die from old age. Unn is not even named when it is said she dies in this section, and Hoskuld, an extremely important character earlier in the saga, is given only two sentences upon his death: one that states he is dead, and another that states this was a sad event.

Names also gain a new dimension in this section because of the character Skammkel, which is an Icelandic homonym for 'shame'. This makes sense considering the rumor he started about Gunnar weeping when Otkel accidentally put a gash in his ear. His name is shame and he not only shames others, but also commits shameful acts like lying to Gizur and Geir and then immediately lying about what they said to Otkel and Njal. The moral involved with this naming is that friendship is only as good as its ability to improve one's character. Many of the shameful characters throughout the saga are said to be a bad influence on good characters. In the case of Gunnar and Njal, their friendship is only as good as Gunnar's ability to adhere to his friend's advice, knowing that he will never bear a grudge against him or suggest anything that is not in his best interest. Gunnar believes this and yet still disobeys, which is an astounding moment for the reader.

Why would Gunnar, who knows that Njal bears 'second sight' (the ability to foresee the future), disobey something so basic as serving his settlement? This seems to invoke the famous bible verse: "Pride goeth before destruction, and a high mind before the fall" (Proverbs 16.18). At its core, Njal's Saga seeks to demonstrate a multitude of moral lapses and achievements. Having the gift of foresight is important in the saga insofar as the fore-tellings also uncover moral quandaries and the solution to those quandaries. Oftentimes they are unsatisfactory. When so many dishonorable characters can get so much out of the protagonists, it makes the reader question how beneficial the solutions are that are being offered. Again, this moral answer is quite aligned with a biblical verse: "But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also" (Matthew 5.39). Later on, this connection to Christianity will become clearer, but for now, it is an intriguing aspect of what purports to be essentially a history of Iceland.

Along with names, language itself gains a proper place in the saga through repetition. A single sentence, "Brave riding, brother" (93), gains two meanings when used as first as a compliment and then secondly as a sarcastic taunt. Another repetition that cannot be missed is the detailed court proceedings. One could easily become a competent Icelandic lawyer by studying Njal's Saga. The typical pop-culture viking is hardly imagined as a lawyer, and yet he is not a good viking if he is not a good lawyer, as far as this saga is concerned. The terminology 'viking' is also somewhat problematic, because while Gunnar and many of the other protagonists raid and collect booty, they never call themselves 'vikings'—only 'enemy raiders'. Possibly the hardest linguistic repetition in this section, however, is the incessant back-and-forth retaliations between the wives of Gunnar and Njal. Their friendship is tested so much that the reader can hardly take it, let alone the characters.

This section also excels in wit and aphorism. As the taunts grow stronger, so does the cleverness of the taunters. In Chapter 61, Hildigunn aphoristically suggests that her brother "will be carrying both head and hand low when you come from this encounter [with Gunnar]" (103), and in Chapter 62, during that encounter, Kol says, "Are you going to run away, Gunnar?" and is answered with "Ask that when this day is done" (105). Finally, after Gunnar chops off Kol's leg, he asks, "Did that hit you or not?" (106). Kolskegg follows up with, "You don't need to look: it's just as you think, the leg is gone" (107). These gibes could have come straight out of a modern blockbuster, and yet here they are 10 centuries earlier in Njal's Saga.


SCANDINAVIAN 220: Early Scandinavian Literature – The Sagas of Möðruvallabók

The manuscript Möðruvallabók (AM 132 fol., 1330–70) contains eleven sagas of Icelanders and is arguably the most important compilation of such sagas. The eleven sagas will be read as they are preserved in the manuscript and considered as individual texts and as parts of the larger compilation. Comparison with standard editions of the various sagas will allow for considerations concerning manuscript variation, textual criticism, new philology, and editorial choices. Readings from the new Routledge Companion to the Medieval Icelandic Sagas will highlight current trends in saga scholarship.

Texts: The sagas of Möðruvallabók (Njáls saga, Egils saga, Finnboga saga, Bandamanna saga, Kormáks saga, Víga-Glúms saga, Droplaugarsona saga, Ǫlkofra saga, Hallfreðar saga, Laxdœla saga un Fóstbrœðra saga) will be read in Old Norse. Secondary readings in will be in English, German, Icelandic and Modern Scandinavian Languages and include the new Routledge Companion to the Medieval Icelandic Sagas (ed. Ármann Jakobsson and Sverrir Jakobsson 2017).

Prerequisites: At least two semesters of Old Norse language studies (or equivalent).


Njals Saga: A Fictional Account Of Early Iceland Essay

Njal’s Saga: A Fictional Account Of Early IcelandNjal’s Saga: A Fictional Account of Early Iceland“The origin and evolution of saga writing in Iceland are largely matters for speculation. A common pastime on Icelandic farms, from the 12th century down to modern times, was the reading aloud of stories to entertain the household, known as sagnaskemmtun (“saga entertainment”). It seems to have replaced the traditional art of storytelling” (Hermann Palsson, pg.

1). Njal’s Saga uses Old Icelandic writing convention and historical data to give a fictional account of a generation’s lifestyle and struggles. Icelandic literature has become very valuable because historians have realized the great amount of truth that can be found in each saga. According to one historian, the sagas have proven to be of “valuable insight into the fabric of a unique medieval community” (Gary Martin, pg.

1). During the twelfth and fourteenth centuries, there were about “forty sagas written by various anonymous Icelanders” (Gary Martin, pg. 1). Each used a combination of historical facts and drama to create Nowell, 2sagas that tracked generations of people.

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Historically, the first people to travel to Iceland were from Norway. According to Gary Martin, they were “surprised to find such a plentiful land” (pg. 1). Not only did they farm, but they also collected food and supplies from the nearby ocean.

There are quite a few sagas that reveal the true historical society of Iceland. “Egil’s Saga records how, on arrival, the settler Skallagrim and his companions ‘went out fishing and seal-hunting, and collecting the eggs of wild foul, for there was plenty of everything” (Gary Martin, pg. 1). In Iceland, the immigrants held to the farming traditions that they had in Norway, so not much changed in the transition. One historian noted, “Iceland, like much of Norway, was essentially country for pastoralists. Short growing seasons made the cultivation of grains marginal” (Gary Martin, pg.

1). Animal products provided the mainstay of the Icelandic diet. An emphasis on dairy cattle and sheep meant that lamb and beef and dairy products such as cheese and whey were relatively plentiful, “especially following good seasons” (Gary Martin, pg. 2)Despite the abundance of food, as more settlers came, the resources were slowly depleted:The following episode from Grettir’s Saga is likely to have been typical: ‘as soon as Eirik knew that Onund had arrived he offered to give him anything he wanted, and added that there was not much land still unclaimed.

Onund said he would like first to see Nowell, 3what land was available. So they went south across the fjords, and when they reached Ofaera, Eirik said, ‘Now you can have a look at it. From here on the land is unclaimed up to Bjorn’s settlement. (Gary Martin, p.

2). Clearly this famine was a historical, recorded event since there are also reports of a shortage of foodstuffs in Njal’s Saga. “This was a time of great famine in Iceland, and all over the country people were going short of hay and food” (Njal’s Saga, Ch. 47). So it is clear that Njal’s Saga includes some factual information, yet still remains a fictional narrative.

Instead of creating a form of law enforcement, the Icelanders usually took matters into their own hands. This is can be seen in the many killings that occur in Njal’s Saga. The Icelandic people had developed a feud system, which was largely based on family and relationships. Being friends or related to someone meant that you stood up for him and defended him at all costs. The importance was not necessarily the individual, but the family name. Lars Lonnroth saw this and commented, “The Feud Pattern emerges from a previous state of balance in the relationship between two families.

A cause for conflict is presented, and the feud breaks out as members of one family commit a punitive act against members of another family” (Lars Lonnroth, pg. 69). This is also clearly seen and recorded in Njal’s Saga when Njal is burned for the sake of his family. Nowell, 4Another interesting aspect of this story is that midway through the saga, Christianity is introduced.

The values and morals upheld by Christianity are very different from those of the Icelandic culture. The Christian value system is based on love, specifically the love God has for people. It is also founded on people’s love for God and for one another. This calls for forgiveness of those who have wronged you and for an attitude of fairness and submission to God. The differences between the two moral systems may have influenced the writer since Njal’s Saga was written years after the Christians came into Iceland. G.

Turville-Petre notes” but at times the Christian outlook dominates in the Njal’s Saga forgiveness triumphs over vengeance” (G. Turville-Petre, pg. 251). It is interesting that religion was a major influence on the Icelandic writing. It seems that when Christianity came into the picture, the Icelanders took the best of both worlds. They still maintained the feud system, which allowed murder, yet still, acted in the name of God, even violently.

Even before Christianity came, the Icelanders had already developed their pagan religion. Hermann Palsson remarked: “The learned men of medieval Iceland took great pride in their pagan past and copied traditional poems on mythological and legendary themes” (Hermann Palsson, pg. 3). Perhaps, they were content with their previous religion, but found comfort in the idea of one God who they could call upon when they were in trouble.

Or perhaps they wanted to Nowell, 5sound more spiritual and righteous in what they were doing. Once again, a very factual event and state of mind which was so carefully captured by the author. It seems that the author had access to Iceland’s historical records. He then utilized his literary skill to create fantastic stories that encompassed the history and values of his medieval community, thus producing Njal’s Saga. “In the late 12th century, Icelandic authors began to fictionalize the early part of their history (c. 900-1050), and a new literary genre was born: the sagas of Icelanders” (Hermann Palsson, pg.

4). Many of the sagas written were similar in that they were used merely for entertainment purposes and were based on true history. So by comparing these with the documents that are strictly historical, it becomes clear how much of the truth was actually embellished to please the audience using very clever literary devices. The sagas are written stories that are based in factual data, but some of the accounts have been construed or completely made up to satisfy the strong oral tradition that was used. “Though a good deal of the subject matter was evidently derived from oral tradition and thus of historical value for the period described, some of the best sagas are largely fictional their relevance to the author’s own times mattered perhaps no less than their incidental information about the past” (Hermann Palsson, pg. 4).

These sagas were used merely for Nowell, 6entertainment purposes so when the storyteller would run out of things to say, or need to make something more interesting, he would embellish a true story, or make up a false story. It was also not uncommon for the storyteller to add spiritual elements for a bit of mysticism and excitement. The structure of Njal’s Saga may be very telling about the history of Iceland during this time period. According to E. G. Turville-Petre, “the author of Njal’s Saga must have also consulted genealogical lists, and books about early Icelandic Law” (G.

Turville-Petre, pg. 250). This is very interesting because he suggests that there were earlier writings and writing styles. There also might have been different government or feud systems that the author had to learn about.

“The presentation of a new character may be lengthened through extensive genealogies, characterizing adjectives, etc. ” (Lars Lonnroth, pg. 50). There is a definite style evident in the saga that is much like a newspaper report. The reader feels as if the story is just a compilation of events without a common theme between them.

The use of genealogy type writing can be very confusing, but implies that outside information was consulted so that the narrative is not entirely fictional. The author of Njal’s Saga also uses characterization to enhance the plot of this literary work:Nowell, 7It is mostly through valour and heroic exploits that the typical hero’s personality is realized. He is, however, often a composite character, for some of his features are borrowed from a later and more refined ethos than that of early Scandinavia. He is in fact the synthesis of Viking ideals on the one hand and of codes of courtly chivalry on the other. (Hermann Palsson, pg.

3). So, Gunnar is immediately portrayed as a grand hero. He seems almost super-human as “he could strike of throw with either hand, and his sword-strokes were so fast that he seemed to be brandishing three swords at once” (Njal’s Saga, pg. 73). Clearly he is strong and handsome, typical for his role as the gallant hero. The author also focuses on Gunnar’s outward appearance, which suggests that while he is fantastically strong and courageous, he may lack mental sharpness.

E. O. G. Turville-Petre remarks “Gunnar is brave, loyal, and open-handed, but being guileless he also lacks wit. This weakness makes him dependent on his friend Njal, a man of very different stamp” (E. O.

G. Turville-Petre, pg. V). Njal “was so skilled in law that no one was considered his equal. He was a wise and prescient man” (pg.

74). The introduction of Njal into the saga is also very noble yet focuses on his intellectual ability rather than physical strength. Our first impression of Njal is also super-human, almost god-like, as he is “prescient”. Nowell, 8Our attention is also drawn in a negative way to Njal’s physical appearance.

It is recorded that, “Njal was wealthy and handsome, but he had one peculiarity: he could not grow a beard” (pg. 74). During Icelandic times a man’s beard was a symbol of his masculinity, so this characteristic of Njal is very revealing. Perhaps it is a foreshadowing that Njal was not going to live a full life because he cannot grow a full beard. Or perhaps it is a sign of physical or emotional weakness.

Although author of Njal’s Saga is still unknown. Yet the literary devices he used are very entertaining. One of the most common throughout the saga is the litote, which serves to express the drama of a situation. This literary device is specifically crucial in the saga because it explains the fictionalization of history.

A litote is defined as an “understatement” and an example of this from Njal’s Saga is given concerning Hebridean: “he had killed many men and paid compensation for none of them” (Njal’s Saga, pg. 56). This device was probably unknown to the author due to the fact that a written tradition was not yet established. It is used quite often throughout the saga and serves to embellish a character’s positive or negative attributes. The literary devices and combination of history and fiction seen in Njal’s Saga are quite revolutionary for the time period in which it was written. Though no one will ever truly know whom the author of Njal’s Saga is, the amazing characteristics of this saga, the splendid portrayal of characters, the use of spiritual elements, and the historical Nowell, 9data contribute to the author’s unparalleled style.

Njal’s Saga is undoubtedly unique, and speaks of the traditions and virtues upheld by the very first Icelanders. BibliographyWorks CitedLonnroth, Lars. Njal’s Saga: A Critical Introduction. Berkeley: U of California P, 1976. 43-69. Martin, Gary.

Food and Feud in Saga Iceland. 1998. University of Adelaide. 10 Apr. , 2001.

Njal’s Saga. Trans. Magnus Magnusson and Hermann Palsson. London: Penguin, 1960.

Palsson, Hermann. Saga. 1999-2001. Britannica.

com Inc. 25 Apr. , 2001. Turville-Petre, E. O.

G. Introduction. The Story of Burnt Njal. Trans. Sir George Webbe Dasent. London: Aldine P, 1911.

5-11. Turville-Petre, G. Origins of Icelandic Literature. Oxford: Clarendon, 1967. 249-253.History Essays


Ugh, no more Murders

Not into murder mysteries? Don&rsquot worry. Iceland has a whole variety of other authors. Like the poet and novelist Steinunn Sigurðardóttir. Her first book Tímaþjófurinn (&lsquoThe Thief of Time&rsquo), an unusual love story beautifully infused with her poetry, was turned in to a French film in 1999.

The poet, novelist and lyricist Sjón has been active on the Icelandic music scene since the early 1980s. He was even featured as a guest vocalist on a Sugarcubes single Luftgitar (The Sugarcubes were an alternative rock group, formed in 1986 comprised of Björk and other cool people).

Sjón has published many poetry books, novels and novellas. His story, Skugga-Baldur or &lsquoThe Blue Fox&rsquo has been turned into a one-woman play, which is quite a feat considering the story is about a man, Shadow-Baldur, who is hunting a fox in the harsh Icelandic landscape, a botanist and his adopted daughter.

A few novelists have been busy collecting awards and nominations both in Iceland and all over the world. Authors such as Auður Ava Ólafsdóttir, Jón Kalman Stefánsson, Andri Snær Magnason and Gerður Kristný.

If you are in the mood for a laugh, you can check out the hilarious stick figure cartoons of Hugleikur Dagsson. Hugleikur has written several offensive comics such as &lsquoShould you be laughing at this?&rsquo, &lsquoAvoid us&rsquo and &lsquoI hate dolphins&rsquo.

A friend of Hugleikur and an all-around funny girl Lóa Hlín Hjálmtýsdóttir is a comic book writer whose book &lsquoGeneralizations about Nations&rsquo will show you what people actually think about your country. As well as being the lead singer in the popular band FM Belfast, Lóa Hlín has written (and drawn) several comics in her Lóaboratorium which show little slices of life in a hilarious and inappropriate way.

  • Hugleikur's wit earned him a spot in Top 10 sexiest men in Iceland 2015
  • You might find Lóa Hlín and FM Belfast at a festival, check out The Top 10 Festivals in Iceland

So if you want to read an Icelandic book, you have a lot to choose from. Everything from ancient Viking Sagas to Nobel Prize winners and offensive cartoons. What are some of your favourite Icelandic books?


Skatīties video: Simon Kaggwa Njala (Maijs 2022).